Each owner wants his beloved cat to feel good and live a happy life in comfortable conditions. To do this, pets are carefully looked after - regularly fed, provide a place for games, recreation, addressing needs, conduct hygiene procedures. But one of the most important stages of owner care is health care, in particular, the timely conduct of preventive vaccination. Plague is one of the most dangerous viral diseases for cats, so the vaccine against it should be administered to the animal regularly.
The danger of plague for cats
Panleukopenia, or plague, is a viral disease, the causative agent of which has a high degree of resistance in the environment. So, with a temperature effect of 60 degrees, it retains its activity for more than an hour, and disinfectants in a concentration of up to 3% (they are used in residential premises most often) are unable to destroy it at all. A cat can become infected through saliva, feces and urine, through objects for caring for a sick or already ill animal.
Once in the body, the panleukopenia virus aggressively affects all systems, starting with the brain, ending with the heart and digestive tract. Within a few days after the incubation period (which can last from 2 to 12 days), the injured and unvaccinated cat will begin to suffer from loss of fluid, general intoxication, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The most dangerous disease is for kittens, elderly animals and individuals with weakened immunity - often even with timely treatment, pets die . An adult and a strong animal, the main thing is to survive the first 3-4 days of illness, if he succeeds, then with a high probability the cat will survive. Given the high risks that the disease carries, it is more advisable to vaccinate the cat on time and not expose your pet to unnecessary danger.
In a cat infected with a plague, all organs suffer, dehydration symptoms increase due to high body temperature and vomiting
Some owners of cats consciously refuse vaccination, arguing that their pets are kept exclusively at home and do not go outside. But you should understand that there is a risk of infection even for domestic cats. The owner can bring particles of infected feces to the house on shoes, and any trip, including to the veterinary clinic, may result in unplanned contact with another animal.
Types of plague vaccines
Vaccines for cats come in many forms. According to the purpose of the drug, they distinguish:
- monovaccines - funds that are designed to form an animal's immunity to only one disease. To date, mono-vaccine for the prevention of plague in cats is not available, since it is considered impractical;
- polyvaccines are complex preparations, the introduction of which allows the animal to be protected from several dangerous diseases at once. Most often, complex feline vaccinations allow you to form an immune response immediately from panleukopenia, viral rhinotracheitis and calicivirus.
Choosing a single or multicomponent vaccine is solely the decision of the animal owner, because there is no difference in their effectiveness. The latter option is chosen more often, since it is very convenient - for one trip to the clinic, you can perform several tasks on the vaccination calendar at once. In terms of the quality of the result, such varieties of drugs do not differ.
Depending on the state of the virus in which it is in the preparation, distinguish:
- inactivated (dead, killed) vaccines. In such preparations, the causative agent of the disease is killed by temperature or chemical exposure, and its ingestion causes an immune response, but is not able to provoke the disease. The advantage of this option is safety for the animal. But the disadvantages include lower efficiency - immunity is less reliable and short-lived;
- attenuated (attenuated, live) vaccines. Viruses are modified, weakened, but retain their ability to reproduce, therefore, when ingested, they cause a brighter and more intense immune response. Due to the weakness of the pathogen, the disease does not occur, but the effect of a live vaccine is better - the immunity is more stable and long-lasting.
To date, the development of special vaccines for animals is underway, the creation of which uses genetic engineering methods. The resulting recombinant preparations should contain only individual genes that, when ingested by a cat, can form the proper level of immune defense.
In theory, mono-vaccines are considered safe in which the virus is in a killed state, but they are less effective. When used correctly, modern drugs rarely give side effects, so the main attention should be paid to the quality of the selected drug for panleukopenia and compliance with all vaccination rules.
Popular plague vaccines for cats
There is a list of drugs that veterinarians use most often - these are popular vaccines that are highly effective. The most popular are:
- Nobivak Tricat Trio is a multicomponent live vaccine that, in addition to the plague, forms an animal's immunity to viral rhinotracheitis and calicivirusosis. Manufactured by Intervet International BV, The Netherlands. Presented in the form of a dry powder and solvent Nobivak Diluent. The average cost of one dose is 400 rubles;
Nobivak Tricat Trio - a live vaccine for cats against plague, calicivirus and rhinotracheitis
- Feligen CRP is a multicomponent live vaccine that protects against rhinotracheitis, calicivirus and panleukopenia. Presented by powder and solvent, manufacturer Virbac SA, France. The cost of one dose is 400 rubles;
Feligen CRP - French-made vaccine that protects against plague, rhinotracheitis and calicivirus
- Quadricate is a live vaccine against panleukopenia, calicivirus, herpesvirus infection and rabies in cats, manufactured by Merial, France. The average cost is 600 rubles;
Quadricate is a vaccine for cats that forms an immunity to four diseases of a viral nature at once (plague, calicivirus, herpes and rabies)
- Felocell CVR - a live vaccine against rhinotracheitis, calicivirus and panleukopenia, dry with a solvent. Production Zoetis LLC, USA. The price of one dose is 350 rubles;
Felocel CVR - a live vaccine against calicivirus infection, panleukopenia and rhinotracheitis in cats
- Multifel-4 is a multicomponent drug for the prevention of plague, calicivirus, rhinotracheitis and chlamydia in cats. Producer "Vetbiohim", Russia. The average price of a vaccine is 300 rubles.
Multifel-4 is a complex vaccine of Russian production that protects a cat from rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, plague and chlamydia
The toxicity of each of the popular drugs is low, and the generated immunity is assessed as persistent for one year after vaccination. The main difference in the preparations is only in the manufacturer and the set of viruses.
When and how to get the plague vaccine
Vaccination should be subject to a number of strict rules. First of all, you must comply with age restrictions and follow the recommended scheme, which is described by the International Veterinary Association of Small Animals (WSAVA).
Work on the creation of a unified system of vaccination of animals is carried out at the international level, since vaccination is not only the protection of one particular animal, it is an opportunity to maintain the so-called population immunity for a longer time (the more animals will be vaccinated against a specific disease, the less chance of getting sick that minority that was left without protection).
At birth, kittens are given mother antibodies that protect their body during the first weeks of life. A high titer of maternal antibodies can interfere with effective vaccination, so the first vaccination against plague is given when passive immunity falls - at 8–9 weeks. The vaccination regimen with anti-panleukopenia drugs is as follows:
- the first vaccine is in 8–9 weeks;
- a second dose is given after 3-4 weeks, usually at the age of 12 weeks;
- after revaccination is carried out at the age of 1 year;
- further plague booster vaccination is performed annually.
Theoretically, it is possible to independently implement the procedure, but it is better to contact a veterinary clinic or call a doctor at home. The first difficulty lies in the peculiarities of the vaccine itself - live multicomponent preparations should be stored and transported only under certain temperature conditions, that is, when buying a vaccine in a veterinary pharmacy, it is necessary to observe the cold chain rule and take it home in a special refrigerator. In addition, before vaccinating the animal, the doctor should examine, because only a professional will be able to objectively judge the condition of the pet. Therefore, vaccinating an animal on its own is a high risk with a high probability of complications.
It is better to contact a veterinarian for vaccination - only a specialist will be able to correctly assess the condition of the animal and vaccinate
Preparation and contraindications
In order for the vaccination against panleukopenia to pass with minimal risks and maximum benefits for the cat, it is necessary to make the correct preparation for the procedure:
- Deworming. 10-12 days before the date of vaccination, it is necessary to get rid of parasites, in particular, from worms. The presence of such a problem significantly increases the burden on the immune system, which will create the so-called breakthrough of post-vaccination protection - an animal with a critically reduced immunity will be practically defenseless against any infectious danger. Even if it is not precisely established that the cat has worms, it is still necessary to give the drug (Prazitsid, Drontal, Azinoks, etc.) for prevention.
- Lack of stress. The stress on the immune system combined with stress is a tough test, especially for a kitten. Therefore, if there was a change of residence and there was a long trip, it is better to postpone vaccination for 1-2 weeks, giving the animal the opportunity to adapt normally to changing conditions.
Do not go for a plague vaccine if:
- the cat is pregnant - the introduction of the virus can provoke impaired development of the nervous system in the offspring;
- less than two weeks have passed after a course of antibiotics;
- the kitten's teeth are actively being cut;
- less than a month has passed after an infectious disease;
- fever was detected before vaccination;
- less than three weeks have passed after surgery or less than a month is left before it.
Scheduled vaccination should be postponed if the pet is pregnant.
Remember, before vaccination, the cat must be absolutely healthy, any signs of malaise should alert the owner and make him think about the feasibility of vaccination at this moment.
After vaccination, a normal reaction or the appearance of complications is possible. A normal reaction is:
- the appearance at the injection site of redness and swelling, which disappears after a few days by itself;
- drowsiness, decreased activity;
- loss of appetite.
Such conditions are provoked by the immune system load created by the drug - the pet's body actively copes with weakened viruses. As part of the norm, health should stabilize in 2-3 days.
The pan-leukopenia vaccine itself is usually easily tolerated by cats, but given that today it is made exclusively as part of complex preparations, there is a possibility of side effects. The anti-rhinotracheitis and calicivirosis components can give a short-term fever, sneezing, and pain at the injection site. Complications are possible in case of violation of the rules for vaccination and the low quality of the administered drug, we are talking about:
- diarrhea and vomiting;
- violation of coordination;
- loss of consciousness;
- the development of an allergic reaction with itching, swelling and shortness of breath.
Anxiety symptoms should be an occasion to immediately consult a doctor.
It happens that after vaccination the animal is limping or dragging the leg into which the drug was injected. Usually this is not related to the vaccine itself, but is the result of a needle entering the nerve.
After vaccination, it is not necessary to physically and psychologically load the animal, it is best to return the cat to its usual environment and provide it with the opportunity to fully relax. Within two weeks, it is better to enter quarantine - to limit the pet from contact with other animals, especially when going outside. It is important for a cat to provide easily digestible food, it is advisable to refuse bathing, limit from hypothermia and overheating during the week.
The vaccine against panleukopenia is given to kittens for the first time at the age of 8–9 weeks, followed by the second vaccination after a month and a booster cycle every year. Mono-vaccine for the prevention of plague does not exist today, a weakened virus is introduced into the body as part of multicomponent vaccines. After the injection, it is important to monitor the condition of the pet - competent observation will distinguish what is a normal reaction and what is a complication.