The natural zone of the tundra occupies about 5-7% of the planet’s land. The climate of the zone is characterized by the absence of warm summers. In this climate, it lasts only a few weeks, and the average air temperature reaches 15 ° C. Low temperatures cause moisture accumulation and this leads to the formation of wetlands in the territory. In the tundra zone, the species composition of animals is small, but it is very numerous. The flora of the tundra requires special attention. He is rich in variety and beautiful. We suggest you familiarize yourself with the list of the most distinctive plants accustomed to this climate.
Characteristic Tundra Plants
Shrub with unusually beautiful inflorescences. It is a national flower of Norway. The plant is saturated with persistent tasty aroma. On a large number of leaves are small flowers of various colors. The plant is distinguished by a variety of species. The plant grows well in semi-shady places with small shrubs.
A small flowering plant is often called the "dryad" in honor of the ancient Greek forest goddess nymphs. Large snow-white flowers are loved by people, so they are often planted in gardens. In addition, the plant includes wild partridges and geese in their winter diet. The plant has dense specific leaves; in winter they remain green.
The plant loves moisture and cold temperature. In the wild, sedges are very beneficial. The plant is considered classic and is used to survive in various climates. In the tundra, animals eat sedge all year, especially in winter. Deer, moose, rodents and muskrats are lovers of sedge. The stem has such a shape that it is easy for a person to cut himself.
A popular plant, characterized by a blue tint of foliage. The fruits are similar to blueberries, located between the small oval foliage of the plant. Blueberries are among the most common tundra plants. There are several types of bushes of this plant.
Evergreen shrub with medicinal properties. The branches of the plant are similar to spruce and are well distinguishable from many other plant species. In mid-summer, bright pink inflorescences appear on the bush. After flowering, the plant forms round black berries. Tundra hunters often quench thirst with juicy berries, which is why the name came from. Because of its popularity, the plant has many names - sorceress, scarlet, etc.
A very important plant for tundra animals in winter. It is also called "deer moss," because for nine months of cold weather, deer eat reindeer moss daily. The plant accounts for 90% of the reindeer’s winter diet. Animals find it by smell even under a thick layer of snow. Yagel belongs to lichens, it is considered the largest and can reach a height of 15 cm.
This herbaceous plant belongs to the genus raspberries. It is seasonal, because during the cold season the upper part of cloudberries dies and only the root remains. Only by spring does a stem grow on which leaves and flowers will grow. The yellow-orange berries of the plant taste different from raspberries, as does its fruit. Cloudberry is a dioecious plant. This means that some plants carry male flowers, from which there are no fruits, and the second - only female flowers, from which berries appear.
Each leaf and branch of the bush is covered with thick hairs, they protect the willow from cold and frost. Reindeers wait a very long time for fresh leaves to appear on the bush. They are happy to eat them, for the health of animals they are very useful. Reindeer can eat up to 7-10 kg of leaves of this shrub per day.
A beautiful plant with a lot of medium-sized flowers. The plant itself in the climate of the tundra can reach 1.5 meters. The stem is covered with villi protecting the rosemary from severe cold. Flowers exude a bright and sugary aroma. It must not be inhaled for a long time, as this can cause a headache or dizziness. For the same reasons, the animals of the tundra do not eat the plant, because it contains a large amount of essential oils and toxic substances.
A small herbaceous plant with narrow oblong leaves. On a long stem are small pink or white flowers. Highlander viviparous has an edible root, they can be consumed raw or boiled.
Each tundra plant has adapted in its own way to the harsh climate of the region. Most plants eat animals, in winter only some of them are an effective source of useful trace elements for reindeer, lemmings and many other inhabitants of the tundra.
Other related articles:
- Tundra nature
- Tundra animals
- Animals of the tundra of the Red Book of Russia
- Forest tundra
- All About Reindeer