The Earth has a very diverse climate for the reason that the planet heats up unevenly, as well as rainfall unevenly. Climate classification began to be offered back in the 19th century, around the 70s. Professor of Moscow State University B.P. Alisova spoke about 7 types of climate that make up their climate zone. In her opinion, the main can be called only four climatic zones, and three zones are transitional. Let's look at the main characteristics and features of climatic zones.
Types of climatic zones:
Equatorial air masses prevail here throughout the year. At a time when the sun is directly above the belt, and these are the days of the spring and autumn equinoxes, there is heat on the equatorial belt, the temperature reaches about 28 degrees above zero. The water temperature does not differ much from the air temperature, about 1 degree. Precipitation here is very much, about 3000 mm. Evaporation is low here, so there are a lot of wetlands in this belt, as well as a lot of dense, humid forests, due to wetlands. Precipitation in these areas of the equatorial belt is brought by trade winds, that is, rainy winds. This type of climate is located above the north of South America, over the Gulf of Guinea, over the Congo River and the upper Nile, as well as over almost the entire Indonesian archipelago, over part of the Pacific and Indian oceans, which are located in Asia and over the shores of Lake Victoria, which is located in Africa.
This type of climate zone is located simultaneously in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. This type of climate is divided into continental and oceanic tropical climate. The mainland is located over a large area of the high-pressure region; therefore, there is little rainfall in this belt, approximately 250 mm. Here is a hot summer, so the air temperature rises to 40 degrees above zero. In winter, the temperature does not fall below 10 degrees above zero.
There are no clouds in the sky, so this climate is characterized by cold nights. The daily temperature differences are quite large, so this contributes to the high destruction of rocks.
Due to the large decay of rocks, a huge amount of dust and sand is formed, which subsequently forms sandstorms. Data storms for humans cause potential danger. The western and eastern parts of the continental climate differ by a lot. Since cold currents flow along the western coast of Africa and Australia, and therefore the air temperature here is much lower, there is little rainfall, about 100 mm. If you look at the east coast, then warm currents flow here, therefore, the air temperature is higher and there is more rainfall. For tourism, this area is quite suitable.
This type of climate is a bit similar to the equatorial climate , the only difference is that there is less cloud cover and strong, steady winds. Summer air temperature here does not rise above 27 degrees, and in winter does not drop below 15 degrees. The period for precipitation here is mostly summer, but there are very few, about 50 mm. This arid area in the summer is filled with tourists and visitors to coastal cities.
Precipitation here often occurs throughout the year. This is influenced by westerly winds. In summer, the air temperature does not rise above 28 degrees, and in winter it reaches –50 degrees. There is a lot of precipitation on the coasts - 3000 mm, and in the central regions - 1000 mm. Vibrant changes occur when the seasons change. A temperate climate is formed in two hemispheres - northern and southern, and is located above moderate latitude. The low pressure area prevails here.
This type of climate is divided into subclimates: marine and continental.
The marine subclimate prevails in western North America, Eurasia, and South America. Wind is brought from the ocean to the mainland. From this we can conclude that summer is cool (+20 degrees), but winter is relatively warm and mild (+5 degrees). There is a lot of precipitation - up to 6000 mm in the mountains.
Continental subclimate - prevails in the central regions. Precipitation is less, since cyclones practically do not pass here. In summer, the temperature is about +26 degrees, and in winter it is quite cold -24 degrees with a large snow cover. In Eurasia, the continental subclimate is pronounced only in Yakutia. Winter is cold with little rainfall. This is because in the interior of Eurasia, areas are least affected by the ocean and oceanic winds. On the coast, under the influence of a large amount of precipitation, frost softens in winter, and heat softens in summer.
There is also a monsoon subclimate that prevails in Kamchatka, Korea, northern Japan, and parts of China. This subtype is expressed by the frequent change of monsoons. Monsoons are winds that, as a rule, bring rain to the mainland and always blow from the ocean to land. Winter is cold thanks to cold winds, and summer is rainy. Rains or monsoons bring winds from the Pacific Ocean here. On Sakhalin Island and Kamchatka, precipitation is not small, about 2000 mm. Air masses throughout the temperate type of climate are only moderate. Due to the increased humidity of these islands, when 2000 mm of precipitation falls annually for an unaccustomed person, acclimatization in this area is necessary.
This type of climate forms two zones: Antarctic and Arctic . Polar air masses dominate here all year round. During the polar night, this type of climate has no sun for several months, and during the polar day it does not go away at all, but shines for several months. The snow cover here never melts, and the ice and snow radiating heat bring constant cold air into the air. Here the strength of the winds is weakened and there are no clouds at all. Precipitation is catastrophically small, but particles constantly resembling needles fly in the air. Precipitation here is a maximum of 100 mm. In summer, the air temperature does not exceed 0 degrees, and in winter it reaches –40 degrees. In summer, periodic drizzle prevails in the air. When traveling to this area, you may notice that the face tingles a little with frost, so the temperature seems to be higher than it actually is.
All types of climates discussed above are considered basic, because here the air masses correspond to these zones. There are also intermediate types of climates that carry the prefix “sub” in their name. In these types of climate, air masses are characteristic of the upcoming seasons. They cross from nearby belts. Scientists explain this by the fact that when the Earth moves around its axis, the climatic zones shift alternately, then to the south, then to the north.
Intermediate types of climates
Here in the summertime come the equatorial masses, and in the wintertime the tropical masses dominate. There is a lot of rainfall only in the summer - about 3000 mm, but, despite this, the sun is merciless and the air temperature reaches +30 degrees all summer. Winter is cool.
In this climate zone, good soil flow and drainability. The air temperature here reaches +14 degrees and in terms of precipitation, they are very few in winter. Good drainage of the soil does not allow water to stagnate and form swamps , as in the equatorial type of climate . This type of climate makes it possible to settle. Here are the states that are populated by the people to the limit, for example, India, Ethiopia, Indochina. There are many cultivated plants that are exported to various countries. In the north of this belt are Venezuela, Guinea, India, Indochina, Africa, Australia, South America, Bangladesh and other states. In the south are Amazonia, Brazil, northern Australia and the center of Africa.
Here in summer tropical air masses prevail, and in winter they come here from temperate latitudes and carry a large amount of rainfall. Summer is dry and hot, and the temperature reaches +50 degrees. Winter is very mild with a maximum temperature of -20 degrees. Low rainfall, approximately 120 mm.
In the west, the Mediterranean climate prevails, which is characterized by hot summers and rainy winters. This area is different in that there is a little more rainfall. About 600 mm of precipitation falls here annually. This area is favorable for resorts and the lives of people in general.
Among the crops grown here are grapes, citrus fruits and olives. Monsoon winds prevail here. It is dry and cold in winter, and hot and humid in summer. Precipitation here is approximately 800 mm per year. Monsoons blow from the sea to land with forest and carry precipitation, and in winter winds blow from land to sea. This type of climate is pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere and in East Asia. The vegetation here grows well thanks to heavy rains. Also, thanks to heavy rains, agriculture is well developed here, which gives life to the local population.
Subpolar type of climate
Summer is cool and humid. The temperature rises to +10, and precipitation is approximately 300 mm. There is more rainfall on the mountain slopes than on the plains. The swampiness of the territory indicates a small weathering of the territory, as well as a large number of lakes. Winters are quite long and cold, and the temperature reaches -50 degrees. The boundaries of the poles do not go smoothly, this is what indicates the uneven heating of the Earth and the diversity of the relief.
Antarctic and Arctic climatic zones
Arctic air dominates here, and the snow crust does not melt. In winter, the air temperature reaches -71 degrees below zero. In summer, the temperature can only rise to –20 degrees. There is very little rainfall.
In these climatic zones air masses change from arctic, which prevail in winter, to moderate air masses, which dominate in summer. Winter lasts 9 months, and it is quite cold, as the average air temperature drops to around -40 degrees. In summer, on average, the temperature is kept at about 0 degrees. For this type of climate, high humidity, which is about 200 mm and a fairly low evaporation of moisture. The winds are strong and blow in the area often. This type of climate is located on the northern coast of North America and Eurasia, as well as Antarctica and the Aleutian Islands.
In this climate zone, winds from the west prevail over the others, and monsoons blow from the east. If monsoons blow, then precipitation depends on how far the area is from the sea, as well as on the terrain. The closer to the sea, the more rainfall. The northern and western parts of the continents carry a lot of rainfall, and in the southern parts there are very few. Winter and summer are very different here, there are also differences in the climate on land and at sea. The snow cover here lasts only a couple of months, in winter the temperature is significantly different from summer air temperature.
The temperate zone consists of four climatic zones: the marine climate zone (fairly warm winter and rainy summers), the continental climate zone (much rainfall in the summer), the monsoon climate zone (cold winters and rainy summers), as well as the transitional climate from the marine climate zones to the continental climatic zone.
In the tropics, hot and dry air usually prevails. Between winter and summer periods, the difference in temperature is large and even very significant. In summer, the temperature averages +35 degrees, and in winter +10 degrees. Large temperature differences appear here between daytime and nighttime temperatures. There is little rainfall in the tropical climate, with a maximum of 150 mm per year. On the coasts, there is more rainfall, but not by much, since moisture goes to land from the ocean.
In the subtropics, the air is drier in summer than in winter. In winter, it is more humid. Summer here is very hot, as the air temperature rises to +30 degrees. In winter, air temperature is rarely below zero degrees, so even in winter it is not particularly cold. When snow falls, it melts very quickly and leaves no snow cover. There is little rainfall here - about 500 mm. There are several climatic zones in the subtropics: monsoon, bringing rain from the ocean to land and on the coast, Mediterranean, which is characterized by a large amount of rainfall and continental, on which there is much less rainfall and it is more arid and warm.
The average air temperature is +28 degrees, and its differences from daytime to nighttime temperatures are insignificant. Fairly high humidity and weak winds are typical for this type of climate. Precipitation here is 2000 mm every year. A pair of rainy periods gives way to less rainy periods. The equatorial climate zone is located in Amazonia, on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, Africa, on the Malacca Peninsula, on the islands of New Guinea.
On both sides of the equatorial climate zone are subequatorial zones. In summer, the equatorial type of climate prevails here, and in winter it is tropical and dry. That is why there is more rainfall in summer than in winter. On the slopes of the mountains, precipitation even exceeds the limits and reaches 10,000 mm per year, and this is all thanks to heavy rains that prevail here all year round. On average, the temperature holds about +30 degrees. The difference between winter and summer is greater than in the equatorial type of climate. The subequatorial type of climate is located in the highlands of Brazil, New Guinea and South America, as well as in Northern Australia.
To date, there are three criteria for climate classification:
- on the characteristics of the circulation of air masses;
- by the nature of the geographical topography;
- on climatic grounds.
Based on certain indicators , the following types of climate can be distinguished:
- Solar. It determines the amount of receipt and distribution of ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface. The determination of the solar climate is influenced by astronomical indicators, season and latitude;
- Mountain. Climatic conditions at an altitude in the mountains are characterized by reduced atmospheric pressure and clean air, increased solar radiation and increased rainfall;
- Arid . Dominates in deserts and semi-deserts. Here, large fluctuations in the temperature of day and night are noted, as well as precipitation is practically absent and are a rare occurrence once every several years;
- Humid . Very humid climate. It is formed in places where there is not enough sunlight, so moisture does not have time to evaporate;
- Nival. This climate is inherent in the area where precipitation falls mainly in solid form, they settle in the form of glaciers and snow blockages, do not have time to melt and evaporate;
- Urban. In the city, the air temperature is always higher than in the district. Solar radiation arrives in a reduced amount, therefore the daylight hours are shorter than at natural objects nearby. Clouds are more concentrated over cities, and more often precipitation occurs, although in some settlements the humidity level is lower.
On the whole, climatic zones on the earth naturally alternate, but they are not always pronounced. In addition, climate features depend on topography and terrain. In the zone where anthropogenic influence is most manifested, the climate will differ from the conditions of natural objects. It should be noted that over time one or another climatic zone undergoes changes, climatic indicators change, which leads to changes in ecosystems on the planet.
The main climatic zones - video