There are a lot of waters on Earth, images from space prove this fact. And now there are concerns about the transient pollution of these waters. Sources of pollution are emissions into the oceans of domestic and industrial wastewater, radioactive materials .
Causes of pollution of the oceans
People always strove for water, it was these territories that people tried to master in the first place. About sixty percent of all large cities are located on the coastal zone. So on the Mediterranean coast are states whose population is numerically equal to two hundred and fifty million people. And at the same time, large industrial complexes emit about several thousand tons of all kinds of waste into the sea, including large cities that also drain sewers. Therefore, do not be surprised that when water is taken for a sample, a huge number of various harmful microorganisms are found there.
With the increase in the number of cities, the amount of dumped garbage into the oceans is growing. Even such a large natural resource cannot handle so much waste. There is a poisoning of fauna and flora of both coastal and marine, the decline of fisheries.
They deal with city pollution in the following way - they dump waste away from the coast and to a greater depth using multi-kilometer pipes. But this does not solve anything at all, but only postpones the time of the destruction of the whole flora and fauna of the sea.
Types of pollution of the oceans
One of the most important pollutants of ocean water is oil. She gets there in every possible way: during the collapse of oil carriers; accidents at offshore oil fields, during oil production from the seabed. Because of the oil, the fish die, and the one that survives has an unpleasant aftertaste and smell. Seabirds are dying, only last year thirty thousand ducks died - sea dwellers near Sweden due to oil films on the surface of the water. Oil, floating along the sea currents, and, sailing to the shore, made many resort areas unsuitable for rest and bathing.
So the Intergovernmental Maritime Society has created an agreement under which it is impossible to drain oil into the water fifty kilometers from the coast, most of the sea powers have signed it.
In addition, radioactive contamination of the ocean is constantly happening. This occurs through leaks in nuclear reactors or from sunken nuclear submarines, which leads to a radiation change in the flora and fauna, and the flow helped him with the help of power circuits from plankton to big fish. At present, many nuclear powers use the oceans to deploy nuclear missile submarine warheads, and bury spent nuclear waste.
Another of the disasters of the ocean is the flowering of water, associated with the growth of algae. And this leads to a reduction in salmon catch. The rapid proliferation of algae is due to the large number of microorganisms that appear as a result of industrial waste. And finally, we will analyze the mechanisms of self-purification of water. They are divided into three types.
- Chemical - salt water is rich in various chemical compounds in which oxidative processes occur when oxygen enters, plus irradiation with light and, as a result, the effective processing of anthropogenic toxins occurs. Salts resulting from the reaction simply settle to the bottom.
- Biological - the entire mass of marine animals living at the bottom, pass through their gills all the water of the coastal zone and thereby work as filters, although they die in thousands.
- Mechanical - when the flow slows down, the suspension precipitates. As a result, the final burial of anthropogenic substances occurs.
Chemical pollution of the ocean
Every year, the waters of the oceans are increasingly polluted by waste from the chemical industry. Thus, a tendency toward an increase in the amount of arsenic in ocean waters was noted. Significant ecological balance is undermined by the heavy metals of lead and zinc, nickel and cadmium, chromium and copper. All kinds of pesticides, such as endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, also cause damage. In addition, tributyltin chloride, which is used to paint ships, has a detrimental effect on marine inhabitants. It protects the surface from overgrowing with algae and shells. Therefore, all these substances should be replaced with less toxic, so as not to harm the marine flora and fauna.
Water pollution of the oceans is associated not only with the chemical industry, but also with other spheres of human activity, in particular, energy, automotive, metallurgy and food, light industry. No less detrimental influence is exerted by utilities, agriculture and transport. The most common sources of water pollution are industrial and sewage effluents, as well as fertilizers and herbicides.
Water pollution is promoted by waste generated along with merchant and fishing fleets, as well as oil tankers. As a result of human activities, elements such as mercury, substances of the dioxins group and PCBs get into the water. Accumulating in the body, harmful compounds provoke the appearance of serious diseases: metabolism is impaired, immunity is reduced, the reproductive system is not functioning properly, and serious liver problems also appear. Moreover, chemical elements are able to influence genetics and change it.
Plastic pollution of the oceans
Plastic waste makes up whole clusters and spots in the waters of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans. Most garbage comes from the dumping of waste from densely populated areas of the coast. Often sea animals swallow packets and small particles of plastic, confusing with food, which leads to their death.
Plastic has spread so much that it can already be found in subpolar waters. It was established that in the Pacific Ocean alone, the amount of plastic increased 100 times (research has been carried out over the past forty years). Even small particles can change the natural ocean environment. In the calculations, about 90% of animals dying on the shore, he dies plastic garbage, which is mistaken for food.
In addition, the danger is a suspension, which is formed as a result of the collapse of plastic materials. Swallowing chemical elements, marine inhabitants doom themselves to great torment and even death. Do not forget that people can also eat fish that are contaminated with waste. Its meat contains a large amount of lead and mercury.
The effects of oceans pollution
Contaminated water causes many diseases in humans and animals. As a result, populations of flora and fauna are declining, and some are even dying. All this leads to global changes in ecosystems of all water areas. All oceans are sufficiently polluted. One of the most polluted seas is the Mediterranean. Sewage from 20 cities flows into it. In addition, tourists from the popular resorts of the Mediterranean make a negative contribution. The world's dirtiest rivers are the Citarum in Indonesia, the Ganges in India, the Yangtz in China and the King River in Tasmania. Among the contaminated lakes, experts call the Great North American Lakes, Onondaga in the USA and Tai in China.
As a result, significant changes in the waters of the oceans occur, as a result of which global climatic phenomena disappear, garbage islands are formed, water blooms due to the growth of algae, and the temperature increases, causing global warming. The consequences of these processes are too serious and the main threat is a gradual reduction in oxygen production, as well as a decrease in ocean resources. In addition, adverse events may occur in different regions: the development of droughts in certain areas, floods, tsunamis. The protection of the oceans should be the priority goal of all mankind.
An interesting video about pollution of the oceans