The tropics and subtropics are climatic zones that have some differences from each other. According to the geographical classification, the tropics belong to the main zones, and the subtropics to the transition ones. A general description of these latitudes, soil and climate will be discussed below.
In the tropics, the vegetation period is year-round, it is possible to obtain three crops per year of various crops. Seasonal fluctuations in soil temperature are very slight. Soils are warm throughout the year. The land is also very dependent on the amount of rainfall, in the rainy season there is complete soaking, during the drought season there is a lot of drying out.
Agriculture in the tropics is very low. Only about 8% of lands with red-brown, red-brown, and floodplain soils have been developed. The main crops of this territory:
- sugar cane.
In this climate, several types of soils are distinguished:
- soil of moist forests;
- soils of shrubs and dry forests;
- soil of subtropical steppes;
- soil of subtropical deserts.
The soil of the territory depends on the amount of precipitation. Red soil is a characteristic soil type of moist subtropics. The soil of humid subtropical forests is poor in nitrogen and some elements. Brown soils are located under dry forests and shrubs. From November to March, there is a lot of rainfall in these territories, and very little in the summer. This significantly affects soil formation. Such soils are highly fertile, they are used for viticulture, the cultivation of olive and fruit trees.
The territory of the tropics is located between the equator line and the parallel, corresponds to a latitude of 23.5 degrees. The zone has an exceptionally hot climate, since here the Sun shows its maximum activity.
In the tropics, high atmospheric pressure, so rainfall is very rare here, it is not in vain that the Libyan Desert and the Sahara are located here. But not all territories of the tropics are dry; there are also humid territories; they are located in Africa and East Asia. The climate of the tropics is quite warm in winter. The average temperature in the hot seasons of the year is up to 30 ° C, in winter - 12 degrees. The maximum air temperature can reach up to 50 degrees.
The territory is characterized by a more moderate temperature. The subtropical climate provides the most convenient conditions for human life. According to geography, the subtropics are located between the tropics at a latitude between 30-45 degrees. The territory differs from the tropics in cooler but not cold winters.
The average annual temperature is about 14 degrees. In summer - from 20 degrees, in winter - from 4. Winter is mild, the lowest temperature does not drop below zero degrees, although frosts are sometimes possible to -10 ... -15⁰ С.
Interesting facts about the tropics and subtropics:
- The climate of the subtropics in summer depends on the warm air masses of the tropics, and in winter on the cool air flows from temperate latitudes.
- Archaeologists have proven that the subtropics are the cradle of human origin. Ancient civilizations developed on the territory of these lands.
- The subtropical climate is very diverse, in some areas an arid-desert climate, in others - monsoon rains occur during whole seasons.
- Forests in the tropics occupy about 2% of the world surface, but more than 50% of the plants and animals of the Earth live in them.
- The tropics maintain a global supply of drinking water.
- Every second, a piece of tropical forest equal in size to a football field disappears from the face of the earth.
Tropics and subtropics are the hot territories of our planet. A huge number of plants, trees and flowers grow on the territory of these zones. The territories of these climatic zones are very vast, therefore they differ from each other. Located on the same climatic territory, soils can be both fertile and with a very low level of fertility. Compared to the colder territories of our planet, such as the Arctic tundra and forest-tundra , the subtropical and tropic zone is best suited for human life, reproduction of animals and plants.