Everyone knows that on a certain plot of land or a reservoir, a certain number of organisms, plants and animals get along together. Their combination, as well as the relationship and interaction between themselves and with other abiotic factors, is usually called biocenosis. This word is formed by the merger of the two Latin words "bios" - life and "cenosis" - common. Any biological community consists of such components of bioceosis as:
- fauna - zoocenosis;
- vegetation - phytocenosis;
- microorganisms - microbiocenosis.
It should be noted that phytocenosis is the dominant component that determines zoocenosis and microbiocenosis.
The origin of the concept of "biocenosis"
At the end of the nineteenth century, the German scientist Karl Mobius studied the oysters in the North Sea. During the study, he found that these organisms can exist only in specific conditions, which include depth, flow rate, salt content and water temperature. In addition, he noted that strictly defined species of marine inhabitants live with oysters. So in 1877, with the release of his book Oysters and Oyster Farm, the term and concept of biocenosis appeared in the scientific community.
Classification of biocenoses
Today there are a number of signs, according to which the biocenosis is classified. If we are talking about systematization based on dimensions, then this will be:
- macrobiocenosis, which studies mountains, seas and oceans;
- mesobiocenosis - forests, swamps, meadows;
- microbiocenosis - a single flower, leaf or stump.
Also biocenoses can be classified depending on the habitat. Then the following types will be highlighted:
The simplest systematization of biological communities is their division into natural and artificial biocenoses. Among the first are primary, educated without human influence, as well as secondary, which were affected by natural elements. The second group includes those who have undergone changes due to anthropogenic factors. Let's dwell on their features in more detail.
Natural biocenoses are associations of living things created by nature itself. Such communities are historically developed systems that are created, developed and operate according to their own special laws. The German scientist V. Tischler identified the following characteristics of such formations:
- Biocenoses arise from prefabricated elements, which can be both representatives of individual species, and entire complexes;
- parts of the community may be replaced by others. So one species can be replaced by another, without negative consequences for the entire system;
- taking into account the fact that in the biocenosis the interests of different species are opposite, then the whole supraorganic system is founded and held thanks to the action of the counteraction force;
- each natural community is built by quantitative regulation of one species by another;
- the dimensions of any supraorganism systems depend on external factors.
Artificial Biological Systems
Artificial biocenoses are formed, maintained and regulated by humans. Professor B.G. Johannes introduced into ecology the definition of anthropocenosis, that is, a natural system deliberately created by man. It can be a park, square, aquarium, terrarium, etc.
Among man-made biocenoses, agrobiocenoses are distinguished - these are biosystems created for food. They include:
A typical feature of agrocenosis is the fact that it is not able to exist for a long period of time without human intervention.