Dalmatians are the only breed in the canine world that is considered truly spotted. Moreover, spots in a real Dalmatian do not appear immediately, but a week after their birth or later. Congenital spots are considered marriage, and such pets are not allowed before the shows. But even such dogs delight their owners, because with a good upbringing, the Dalmatians are surprisingly friendly and affectionate.
It is believed that the Dalmatians are a very ancient breed. In the excavations of sacrificial fires in the territory of today's Austria, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennia BC, a dog skull was found that closely resembles the skeleton of the head of the current hound or Dalmatian.
There are different opinions about the origin of the breed in its current form. Most dog handlers agree that the homeland of these animals is the territory of the former Yugoslavia, where the Dalmatian region was located, from which their name came .
The proof of this version is that white dogs with black spots are depicted on the arms of many Yugoslav princes. Hence, representatives of this breed were first exported to the British exhibition.
Since ancient times, the main purpose of these dogs was hunting, as well as escort and guard of the owners
However, some historians claim that similar animals were preserved in images of ancient India, and in Europe they appeared along with roving gypsies. There are researchers who are sure that the Dalmatians came to us from Ancient Egypt. The latter theory seems plausible when you consider that these dogs tolerate heat very well.
Already in the XVIII century, spotted pets were actively used on horse hunting as hounds. Representatives of the nobility bred spotted pets as carriage dogs - they ran in front of the crew and cleared the way. And at long journeys, they protected the owners from robbers and wild animals.
Today, Dalmatians are used during earthquakes to search for people under the rubble. They found the most interesting application in the USA: for a long time they ran ahead of fire trucks and barked about their appearance. Thus, they became the first sirens on fire crews. Since then, in America they have been called "fire dogs."
In modern performances related to fire engines of early models, the Dalmatian is an obligatory participant
The color of the Dalmatians is white with spots. And they do not have to be black. Brown spots are also considered standard. There are also tiger spots or gray.
In one litter, puppies with both black and brown spots can be born.
Merged spots are valued below individual ones. And congenital is a sign of culling, and they are determined in an adult by the absence of white hairs characteristic of acquired spots.
Key indicators of the standard:
- male growth 56–61 cm; females - 54–59 cm;
- the weight of males is 27–32 kg; females - 24–29 kg.
The standard attaches great importance to the absence of deafness. In Russia, such testing is not specifically conducted, but in America they pay great attention to it. There, hearing impairment in Dalmatians is detected in 20% of cases.
It is believed that representatives of this breed tend to become attached to the owner and members of his family. The dog is sociable, agile, very clean . True, if you do not pay attention to it, you can do something or take offense.
If the owner does not deal with the dog, he will find entertainment that is not always convenient for the owner. Such a pet can run far away for a walk or play with illegal objects. However, in general, these animals do not cause much trouble, do not bark for no reason and get along well with children.
These dogs are curious, but not aggressive, get along well with cats
Pros and cons of the breed
Dalmatians have a number of undoubted advantages:
- the mind, kindness, friendliness of this dog make her special charm;
- such a pet has an ocean of energy, and if you yourself are a lover of active walks, this is your choice;
- a young animal is easy to train;
- she is clean: 2-3 baths per week are enough.
Children, as a rule, love these animals for their fidelity and affection.
However, like any breed, they have their drawbacks:
- if a person likes to lie on the couch, such a dog will not suit him;
- with age, Dalmatians become more independent and can show character;
- like most short-haired tetrapods with elements of a white color, they are highly susceptible to allergic diseases;
- the wool needs to be looked after every day: if you do not comb it, all your clothes will be in white villi;
- Dalmatians in the frost often freeze their ears, so in cold weather it is better to walk for a short time, but regularly.
Care and maintenance
The best home for the Dalmatians will be a country house where you can run around in the yard and play. A dog can live in an apartment, but then he will have to walk more with him.
If left without moving, the pet will become irritable and may even refuse food. Representatives of this breed cannot live on the street all year round: in cold weather they will freeze and hurt.
If the owners do not stay at home for a long time, the pet may feel sad or bite on furniture
Caring for them is simple: regular walks, combing and feeding are all that is required from the owner.
Representatives of this breed are quite omnivorous and are well accustomed to both natural feeds and artificial ones.
True, artificial feed should be free of dyes, which such pets are often allergic to. Caution should also be taken with natural food: spotty family members often have an allergy to the liver, especially pork. Some dog handlers write about their same reaction to chicken. Choose a four-legged friend's menu so as not to cause him any inconvenience.
An important principle - meat and fish should be in the diet, but in a limited amount, since Dalmatians often develop urolithiasis in food because of protein. Sea fish can be eaten raw, river fish must be boiled.
Cereals in the Dalmatian menu should also be present, but in an amount of not more than a quarter of the total volume of food. Do not forget about dairy products. The gastrointestinal tract of these dogs also assimilates most vegetables without problems: cabbage, squash, pumpkin. But with fruits it is better to be more restrained, again due to allergic reactions.
The dog herself is distrustful of the fruit table.
Dogs of this breed should not be given hercules: white coat from it acquires a yellowish tint.
Caring for the hair of such dogs is not particularly difficult. It is only necessary to comb it out daily, as the animal constantly sheds. Only the brush must be chosen not rigid, otherwise you can damage the skin.
If the molting is too intense, it may be a sign of a lack of vitamins. It is important to make sure that they are present in the pet's diet in kind or as special additives, which are now sold a lot.
Parenting and training
Of course, to work out the team: “Aport!” it makes sense to use objects that are more suitable for the dog in size
A well-educated Dalmatian is a devoted friend and a wonderful travel companion. It is only necessary to immediately let the puppy understand who is the master of the situation. For example, by the age of three months, he should clearly carry out the command “To me!”. This will greatly simplify communication with him on a walk. Since young Dalmatians are very curious and often tend to run away, training a pet, it is necessary to use goodies and pulling up the leash.
At the same time, in no case should you shout at a dog and even more so beat it - spotted pets are very touchy.
From the first days, the puppy should know where its place is, bowls with water and food. By the age of three months, he can already be taught the commands "Sit!", "Lie!" and "Next!". As a rule, this breed easily learns new things, and the dog starts to execute basic commands quickly. Over time, especially at the site, more complex orders, such as Barrier! or walking on a log. Combat skills, for example, indifference to a shot or the correct reaction to “Fas!”, Are refined, if necessary, with the help of an instructor.
The command must be accompanied by gestures, and some of them should be only yours, so that outsiders do not guess about them. This can save you later in a dangerous situation.
Games are probably their favorite pastime, and therefore they learn faster in their process
It makes sense to train this dog during the game. For example, the “Aport!” Command easy to digest with the help of a ball, these hounds adore finding a person on the trail or thing and enjoy jumping into the water behind a wand, you just have to bring them to nature. It is with great joy that the Dalmatians run next to the owner’s bike or on the track.
Active games are better, of course, to spend on the street. Dimensions spotted pet still do not allow him to rush around the apartment.
Disease and treatment
With persistent symptoms of malaise, it is always better to show the pet to the veterinarian
All dogs can be susceptible to infectious diseases: plague, hepatitis and others - which can be excluded by vaccination. However, there are ailments that are characteristic of Dalmatians. Vulnerabilities in the body of these animals are the kidneys and skin.
The most common attack in spotted households is urolithiasis. The dog does not want to go hand in hand, does not allow itself to be stroked, hardly sits up and stands up. This happens due to bouts of lower back pain. After a while, they stop, but the disease continues to develop. The reason for this, in addition to excess protein food, can be short walks, lack of movement.
Surgical treatment of the kidneys is rare, more often a catheter or stone-dissolving drugs, for example, allopurinol, are used. Without consulting a veterinarian, it is not worth giving the pet such funds, since they require careful calculation. Skin diseases are treated with vitamins and anti-allergic agents.
With good care and frequent walks, representatives of this breed live on average 10–13 years. At the same time, their motor activity persists until old age.
The first mating of a Dalmatian girl is a responsible process.
It is not worth mating with the first estrus. By this time, she is not yet ready for motherhood. It is preferable to knit later. For example, for the third time.
The estrus usually lasts from 14 to 25 days, and a period of 10 to 14 is considered the most favorable. The discharge noticeably brightens, the girl willingly strokes herself, often takes her tail aside.
Knitting is best done twice.
Before the procedure, you need to make sure that the expectant mother is healthy, take the necessary vaccinations, and drive off the worms.
In the first four weeks after mating, its successful outcome may not be noticed. An experienced owner is able to determine changes in behavior: a pregnant female becomes calmer, more affectionate. In the fifth week, signs of toxicosis are possible.
Childbirth in a dog usually occurs on the 65th day, but sometimes the bearing of the fetus is delayed to 70.
By the age of one and a half months, puppies are not only quite similar to an adult, but also quite active in battles for mom's milk
The cubs are born completely white, and only on the 7-10th day they appear spots. If the mother has enough milk, she can be fed puppies from the age of three weeks. As the kids grow up, they should give cereals from ground cereals, with the exception of millet, semolina and oats, "peas" of raw meat. Gradually, you can add eggs, cottage cheese, vegetable purees to the diet.
If the female has lost milk and there is very little of it, in veterinary clinics you can buy a special substitute or dry food as an additive. Milk formulas for human children are not suitable for puppies.
Completely from maternal nutrition, the litter is weaned after two months. Then the puppies can be transferred to new owners. By this time, they should already be able to completely eat, drink and tinker with toys on their own.
How to name a Dalmatian
There are many options for male names for a spotted pet: Nike, Jacques, Chuckie, Rap, Snickers, Marquis, Lucky, Santa, Harlequin, Jacquard, Star, Marble, Hypnosis, Nice, Sky, Star, Pattern, Estet.
For newborn females, ideas about nicknames are no less: Sandy, Evie, Point, Adele, Basia, Gabby, Ruth, Delta, Tatu, Brittany, Jesse, Buffy, Starry, Abby, Zebu, Candy, Gerda, Alma, Nick, Phoebe.
The beauty and charm of these dogs is probably the main reason for choosing the future owners in their favor, but only active, cheerful, loving walks in the fresh air, preferably living in a country house with a large family, can become ideal owners for such pets
Any breed has curious distinctive features. And these dogs are no exception:
- Dalmatians do not have equally spaced spots, they are purely individual, like fingerprints in a person.
- In the famous Disney cartoon on dogs, a total of 6,469,952 spots. The actor-man voiced the dogs in it.
- A great lover of this breed was George Washington.
- Spots in Dalmatians are located even in the mouth.
Owner reviews about Dalmatians
Dalmatian is calm and balanced, friendly and watchful, affectionate and distrustful of outsiders, with a sense of dignity, sensitive, gets along well with other animals, is hunting affectionate. in my opinion a very correct dog.
The dog is very playful, funny, very affectionate and kind. With a very difficult character. The dog responds quite adequately to strangers, but at first it does not allow itself to be ironed - it is eyeing. When the dog becomes bored, he tries to wake everyone, climbs right on the bed and sighs right above my face or the face of her husband. we feed it mainly with chicken paws, cereals with something meat or fish. In the mood can eat a carrot or an apple. Very fond of sweets mainly chocolate or cookies. Often I take him with me for a run to the park, he does it with great pleasure. It is important for this dog to walk and let off steam. The dog bathes two or three times a month, that’s exactly what the veterinarian advised, you don’t need to comb it, since the coat is not long, just wash it in a special mitt. You should also monitor the ears, clean them and dig in a special oil to prevent pests. Regarding training, he did not give in to her quite easily, as he was a puppy, and not many puppies are very obedient. The dog can serve, give a paw, voice, sit, spin and command to lie. I would not call the Dalmatian a guard, because if he hears extraneous sounds on the street or in the entrance, he first listens, and then starts barking and howling loudly. In general, I would recommend this dog as a pet, even in a family with young children, since it is very kind and will never bite anyone.
Dalmatians are active, kind and smart creatures, easily amenable to training, very hardy physically. These dogs are ideal for long and long walks. For lovers of active activities with a pet who likes nature and physical activity, these creatures are suitable like no others.