Features of the geographical location of Australia, relief and oceans have influenced the formation of a unique climate. A huge amount of solar energy and always high temperatures come here. The air masses prevail tropical, which makes the continent relatively dry. On the mainland there are deserts and tropical forests, as well as mountains with snow-capped peaks. The seasons here are completely different than we used to perceive. It can be said that summer and winter, and autumn and spring are reversed here.
The north and part of the east of the continent are in the subequatorial zone. The average air temperature is 24 degrees Celsius, and the annual rainfall is 1500 mm. Summer in this zone is wet and winter is dry. At different times of the year, monsoons and hot air masses affect.
East Australia is located in the tropical zone. A relatively mild climate is observed here. From December to February, the temperature is +25, and it rains. In June-August, the temperature drops to +12 degrees. Depending on the season, the climate is dry and humid. Also in the tropical zone are the Australian deserts, which occupy a large territory of the mainland. In the warm season, temperatures here exceed +30 degrees, and in the central part of the continent - more than +45 degrees in the Great Sandy Desert. Sometimes precipitation is absent here for several years.
The subtropical climate also has differences and can be of three types. The southwestern part of the mainland lies in the zone of the Mediterranean type. It has dry, hot summers, and in winter it is warm and relatively humid. The temperature maximum is +27, and the minimum is +12. The farther south, the more the climate becomes continental. There is little rainfall, there are large temperature differences. A humid and mild climate formed in the southernmost part of the mainland.
Tasmania lies in the temperate climate zone, which is characterized by cool summers, relatively warm and humid winters. The temperature varies from +8 to +22 degrees. When falling, the snow here instantly melts. It often rains, so the amount of precipitation exceeds 2000 mm per year. Frosts are only on the tops of the mountains.
Australia has unique flora and fauna due to its special climatic conditions. The continent is located in four climatic zones, and in each of them different types of climate are manifested.