Modern life is firmly connected with the activities of the chemical industry. Packaging, decorative ornaments, production waste - all this requires proper disposal. The "garbage" obtained by chemical routes is characterized by a long decomposition period, and in some cases, a great danger to the environment.
What is called chemical waste?
Chemical waste is a diverse "garbage" that is generated as a result of the activities of the relevant industry. Garbage in quotation marks, since in addition to solid objects, there may also be liquids. First of all, this is the waste of chemical industries involved in the production of reagents and preparations for further use.
The production of packaging materials, medicines, fuels for vehicles, agricultural fertilizers and other goods also involves the creation of various wastes that could harm the environment and humans.
What chemical wastes are?
Chemical-type waste that can be disposed of can be divided into several types: acids, alkalis, pesticides, oil residues, electrolytes, oils and pharmaceutical constituents. Oil waste is generated in the process of producing gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, fuel oil and may not always be reused. Acids and alkalis are actively recycled, but also in large quantities need to be disposed of at special landfills.
To some extent, household items obtained as a result of chemical production can also be classified as chemical waste. First of all, this is all kinds of packaging. The times when food and household appliances were packaged in paper are long gone and now a plastic film reigns here. Bags, grocery bags, plastic cards, disposable tableware - all this is thrown into ordinary landfills, but has a very long decomposition period. If nothing remains from the paper box in a year or two, then the plastic container will lie on the landfill in 30 years. Most plastic elements completely decompose only in their 50th year.
What happens to chemical waste?
Chemical waste can be converted into raw materials for another production process, or disposed of. Depending on the type of waste and the degree of its danger to the outside world, there are different disposal technologies: neutralization, chlorination with oxidation, alcoholysis, thermal method, distillation, biological method. All these methods are designed to reduce the toxicity of a chemical substance, and in some cases to obtain other properties necessary for storage in it.
In most chemical wastes are hazardous and very hazardous. Therefore, they are disposed of responsibly and comprehensively. Often specialized organizations are involved for this purpose. For certain types of waste, for example residual products of oil distillation, special landfills are created - sludge storage facilities.
Recycling of chemical waste often involves recycling. Moreover, in many cases, household garbage, which poses a danger to the environment, can be disposed of exactly for recycling, and not stored in a landfill. For this purpose, separate collection of garbage was invented, as well as waste sorting plants.
A good example of the recycling of household chemical waste is the grinding of plastic, followed by the manufacture of pulp for casting new products. Conventional car tires can be successfully used for the production of crumb rubber, which is part of the coatings of stadiums, asphalt, flooring at level crossings.
Hazardous chemicals in the home
It happens that in ordinary life a person is faced with a chemical that poses a serious danger. For example, if you break a classic medical thermometer, mercury will spill out of it. This metal is capable of vaporizing even at room temperature, and its vapors are toxic. Inadequate handling of mercury can lead to poisoning, so it is better to entrust this matter to professionals and call the Ministry of Emergencies.
Everyone can make a simple but very effective contribution to the disposal of household waste that is undesirable for the environment. For example, throw garbage in separate containers, and return batteries (they contain electrolyte) to specialized collection points. However, the problem along this path is not only the lack of desire to "bother", but also the lack of infrastructure. In the vast majority of small cities in Russia, there are simply no collection points for batteries and separate garbage containers.