Quite delicate, but when it comes to pet health, the necessary topic is the health of the paraanal glands. In most cases, the owners of the dog are unaware of their presence, but this happens until the inflammatory process begins in the glands. This condition is accompanied by a number of symptoms and requires the intervention of a specialist. What kind of paraanal glands in dogs, what is their main task, and why does inflammation occur?
What are the paraanal glands?
Until the glands make themselves felt, the owner of the pet does not suspect that the four-legged pet has them at all. But then, when a pathology occurs, you have to not only learn about their features, but also look after this area.
The paraanal glands, also called sacs, are located in the place where the rectum passes into the anus. This is a paired organ that secretes a secret that has an individual specific smell. Thanks to him, dogs know who has been here recently, mark their territory, scare away enemies and attract potential gentlemen.
The secret is secreted during bowel movements, mixed with feces. But this happens when the digestive system and intestines function normally in the animal. That is, the feces squeezes the secret out of the sacs, and in every act of defecation they are emptied from the contents.
Many dogs do not experience difficulties with the work of the paraanal glands throughout their lives, but some pets have problems - the bags are clogged with contents, the animal's body cannot clean them on its own, uncomfortable sensations and the risk of all kinds of complications appear. What leads to such complications?
Why glands become inflamed
When the secret from paraanal sacs is not removed, then the process of decay occurs in the glands, and in a similar environment, pathogenic bacteria begin to multiply intensively. There are many reasons for this pathological phenomenon:
- the pet leads an inactive lifestyle;
- the dog has a genetic predisposition to the disease;
- weakened immune system;
- pregnancy period;
- erratic, too frequent knitting;
- the dog was injured;
- the presence of a disorder in the bowel movement due to malnutrition (if the dog eats low-quality semi-finished foods, eats a lot of bones, etc.);
- non-compliance with the rules of individual hygiene of the animal.
No matter what led to the disruption of the paraanal glands, the clinical manifestations of the disorders will equally disturb the pet.
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Stages of the inflammatory process
Inflammation develops in stages, causing more and more obvious signs of pathology:
- a violation of the natural outflow occurs;
- a large amount of secretory fluid accumulates in the paraanal glands;
- gradually the consistency of the secret thickens;
- the tissues of the sacs become inflamed, causing discomfort and pain;
- the affected surface becomes an excellent environment for the life of pathogenic microorganisms;
- due to the secondary microflora, the inflammatory process intensifies, leading to the formation of purulent exudate and abscess;
- when abscesses erupt, fistulas form.
Such changes are accompanied by other pathological phenomena, and the owner should pay attention to the condition of the pet as soon as possible.
Symptoms of pathology
The intensity of the symptoms of the inflammatory process in the paraanal glands directly depends on the degree of damage:
- I degree - the dog is worried about itching, she combs the area of the anus. The secret is secreted in small quantities, its color varies from light transparent to watery-whitish or yellowish.
- II degree - the secret becomes even less, it is characterized by a thick consistency. Symptoms are supplemented by other signs - alopecia develops (loss of hair), a rash appears in the form of pustules and vesicles on the skin of the inner thigh area. The pet begins to feel stiff in the belt of the lower extremities.
- III degree - the secret thickens to a creamy state, it becomes even less. In addition, the secretory fluid becomes darker. A neurological syndrome is manifested and itching intensifies.
- IV degree - in consistency, the secretory fluid of the gland becomes like clay - thick, granular, from dark brown to black, the pelvic girdle or half of the body is paralyzed.
In addition, a sick pet has a number of signs:
- The behavior of the animal changes - the dog can become aggressive, there is a change in habits.
- Appetite is reduced or completely absent.
- Soreness is felt in the anus, tail base and between the anus and testicles.
- The skin and coat becomes wet.
- Pathology is accompanied by hyperkeratosis - a hypertrophic seal of the epidermis.
- Hypesthesia is manifested - an increase in sensitivity.
- Soreness when touching skin.
- Excessive pigmentation.
- Skin erythema, which manifests as redness.
- Rectal-skin fistulas (perianal sinuses) are formed.
- On the skin appear ulceration, eroded areas.
- The temperature rises, a febrile state occurs.
- Pricking, pet intensively combing painful area.
- The anal area swells noticeably.
- Cramping pains in anus.
- Depression, depressive mood, lethargy, fatigue.
At the very beginning of the disease, you can independently help the pet by cleaning the paraanal glands. A similar procedure is carried out for preventive purposes and when blockage of the glands becomes a regular occurrence. But how to clean them?
Cleaning paranal glands at home
To carry out the procedure at home, you must purchase vaseline oil and sterile medical gloves from the pharmacy. The most convenient place for cleaning is the bathroom, as the secretory liquid has a very unpleasant odor and can get on furniture. If it gets on the upholstery, then getting rid of the stain will not be easy, and in addition, the air in the room will be spoiled for a long time.
It is necessary to insert the index finger into the anus of the animal and feel glandular formations on its sides, which are similar in shape to dense balls. Applying light massage movements, the contents of the bags should be emptied outward, manipulation is carried out on both sides.
After cleansing the paraanal glands, the area of the anus of the animal must be thoroughly washed with a detergent. To avoid complications, it is advisable to immediately put the pet suppository with anti-inflammatory effect. Such manipulation is recommended to be repeated as necessary.
It is worth noting that for representatives of small breeds this method is not very suitable. But here you can apply another cleaning method - using a sterile wipe. At the same time, the owner should not forget about his own hygiene, after putting on medical gloves.
Gently press the napkin to the anus and gently squeeze (squeeze) the area of the rectum. This method may seem simpler in comparison with the first, however, it is not always possible to achieve the desired result with it, especially when it comes to condensed glandular fluid.
If we talk about the frequency of cleaning, then this is decided individually - one dog is enough to clean the paraanal glands once every six months, the other is not enough, and the manipulation is carried out monthly and even more often.
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How is inflammation of the paraanal glands treated?
If the inflammatory process is not intense, then you can cope on your own, but if the disease is in a state of neglect, then you can not do without the help of a veterinarian. And besides, even if the cleaning was successful, you can also contact your veterinarian to find out why the glands cannot function on their own.
With this ailment, specific laboratory methods are not used, to establish a diagnosis, it is enough to examine a sick dog, and to probe the area of pathology. Therapeutic therapy for inflammation of the paraanal glands includes the following manipulations and techniques:
- mechanical cleansing of blockages in the glands;
- washing of the sinuses;
- the introduction of antibacterial agents (they are laid in the sinuses, Cephalexin is an effective agent in this case), therapy can last from 5 to 15 days;
- suppositories for rectal administration may be prescribed, for example, ichthyol;
- sometimes recommend novocaine blockade with antibiotics ;
- regular monitoring and use of measures for secondary prevention.
With severe pain, it is possible to use local anesthetics and sedative agents. If clogged glands are cleared in which there is no inflammation, then anesthetic drugs are not used.
If abscesses formed, then punctures and washing of tissues from pus can be made. For this, the dog is drained, and the tissues are washed with saline and a mild disinfectant. With a closed abscess, a course of wet hot compresses is prescribed, which is done before the abscess ripens. Then the veterinarian opens it and carries out a cleansing.
Severe pathological conditions require surgical intervention. In this situation, a resection of the paraanal glands, called a saculectomy, is prescribed. Naturally, such a manipulation is carried out in extreme cases, when frequent relapses occur, and the owners have to perform a cleaning every 5-7 days.
Saculectomy alone is not an operation of high complexity. The surgeon makes 2 incisions over the glands, through which he displays them and cuts them off. Since the tissues of the rectum and the anal ring are not interfered, the pet can walk "in the big way" on its own after 24 hours. He returns to his usual life, can drink, eat, play, as usual.
To prevent the seams from stretching, you need to adjust the nutrition of your four-legged friend - give him food that is easily digestible, and take him for a walk more often, this is extremely important for recovery - the dog should not endure the urge to empty for a long time.
Prevention of blockage of the paraanal glands
Of course, in some cases it is impossible to avoid such a pathology, but in most cases, the observance of preventive measures turns out to be quite enough to never know how to clean the pet's bags with a secret:
- walk the dog more often, this will lead to the fact that the glands will be cleaned normally;
- it is worth taking care of the activity of the pet, often giving it physical activity;
- another important aspect is proper nutrition, excess protein foods can lead to difficult bowel movements, avoid disturbance of emptying - diarrhea or constipation; to improve digestion, the dog needs fiber.
Inflammation of the paraanal glands is a rather unpleasant phenomenon, however, with timely access to medical help, it will not be able to significantly undermine the health of the pet. It is very important to take care of your four-legged friend and, if necessary, carry out the required cleaning, this will save the pet from unpleasant sensations and possible complications.