Varieties of oyster mushrooms are called abalone, oyster or wood mushrooms, and these are some of the most common edible mushrooms . Oyster mushrooms are cultivated by people all over the world, the mushroom is especially common among farmers and in individual households in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa. The popularity is explained by the simplicity and cheapness of cultivation, palatability and high biological effectiveness.
Oyster mushroom hat is fleshy. At first it is convex, and then it becomes smooth. In mature specimens, it has the shape of a shell (in Latin ostreatus - oyster) as in oyster.
The surface of the mushroom caps is smooth and shiny, wavy. At the beginning of growth, the hat is indistinguishable from the leg. Then it takes the form of an oyster, and then goes into the shape of a spatula or fan as soon as the mushroom reaches maturity. A recess forms at the top.
Oyster mushroom legs
The leg is firm and firm. From above it is thin, and at the base it thickens. The base is covered with fine, whitish down. The place of attachment of the cap to the leg is always eccentric, located away from the center.
Gills thick, branched, extend along part of the leg. Gills range from white with a cream tint to white with a touch of ivory and grayish color.
Fruit body oyster mushroom
The flesh of the mushrooms is dense but tender. The color is white, the smell is pleasant, the taste is sweetish. The mushroom is not very fragrant and almost odorless.
Mushroom color options
The color of the oyster mushroom hat varies from dark gray with purple hues to the color of light and even dark hazelnuts.
Purple oyster mushrooms
The tone that the mushroom takes is brownish-dark, brownish-reddish, from black-violet to blue-blue at the final stage of development of the fetus. Before death, the mushroom pales and whitens.
Gray oyster mushrooms
Leg is developed and short. Due to the irregular cylindrical shape, the mushroom appears squat.
Ripening Oyster Mushrooms
The period of growth and collection of mushrooms is autumn-winter. Usually oyster mushrooms bear fruit in late autumn, and the growing season extends to spring. Development stops the frost, but if the weather gets warmer, the mushroom quickly resumes growth.
Oyster mushroom habitat
Oyster mushroom is a saprophyte fungus and only occasionally a parasite fungus. Joins the stumps of poplars and mulberries. Oyster mushrooms develop in small groups, very close to each other. Often, mushroom caps are stacked on top of each other, like roof tiles.
These fungi develop on trunks even at a considerable height from the ground. They grow on broad-leaved and rarely coniferous trees. Oyster mushrooms are also common in urban parks, on the edges of roads and highways. This mushroom grows from plains to mountains and difficulties with breeding oyster mushrooms do not arise.
Oyster mushroom is widespread in many temperate and subtropical forests around the world, the mushroom does not grow in the Pacific Northwest of North America. This is a saprophyte, which in nature decomposes dead wood, especially deciduous and beech trees.
Oyster mushroom is also one of the few known carnivorous mushrooms. Its mycelium kills and digests nematodes, which biologists believe is the way the fungus receives nitrogen.
Oyster mushrooms grow in many places, but some species develop colonies only on trees.
This fungus most often grows on dying deciduous trees; it acts on them only saprophytic and not parasitic. As the tree dies from other causes, oyster mushrooms receive for growth a rapidly growing mass of already dead and dying wood. Oyster mushrooms really benefit the forest, decompose dead wood, return vital elements and minerals to the ecosystem in a form suitable for use by other plants and organisms.
Growing oyster mushrooms at home
For mushroom cultivation, shops sell boxes / bags with substrate and oyster mushroom spores, and it is convenient to grow them at home.
Mushroom cultivation brings great satisfaction and is beneficial for the family budget. There are two ways to grow this and other mushrooms. The first method is "manual" cultivation on the ground in a garden or greenhouse. The second, recommended, is “industrial” cultivation using substrates (bales) already prepared by enterprises for use at home.
Oyster mushroom cultivation manually "on the ground"
In the cold season, trunks are cut, possibly from poplar, with a diameter of more than 20 cm. The winter period is important because the tree should stop growing. After trimming, the stumps are stored in a shady place in an upright position awaiting use, which usually occurs between April and June.
30 cm segments are cut from the trunks, pits are pulled out 1 meter wide and 120 cm deep. A layer of mushroom mycelium is placed at the bottom of the pit, and vertically located trunks are placed on top. Then another layer of mycelium and trunk and so on. The upper part is covered with boards and a soil layer of 15 cm is poured.
The heat and humidity that form inside the pit will facilitate the distribution of mycelium along the logs laid inside. In September, the trunks are removed and buried one at a time 15 cm, at a distance of 30 cm from each other. About twenty days later, the growth of oyster mushrooms will begin, which is repeated every next season.
Growing oyster mushrooms on an industrial substrate in bags
This is a method of growing that every person comfortably applies directly in the house without the need to dig land or have free space in the yard.
In this case, not chopped trunks are used, but bags with a substrate consisting of straw from corn, wheat and legumes. This compound is seeded with mycelium cultures and then placed in a plastic container.
The bale made in this way is ready for incubation, this period lasts about 20 days and takes place in a place with a temperature of about 25 ° C. As soon as the mycelium penetrates the entire bag with the substrate, remove the plastic and place the bag on a shelf in a sunny or artificially illuminated place and maintain the temperature at about 15 ° C.
Oyster mushrooms grow in cycles in bags with a substrate. The growth period is artificially interrupted by a decrease in room temperature.
3 ways to grow oyster mushrooms - video
What do oyster mushrooms taste like
Cooked oyster mushrooms have a smooth, oyster-like texture, and some people talk about a light aftertaste of seafood. Food lovers believe that oyster mushrooms have a delicate aroma of anise.
Both tastes are implicit, and, as a rule, they cannot be detected after adding mushrooms to the main course. In general, oyster mushrooms have a mild taste with a light earthy tint.
Oyster mushroom recipes
The gastronomic interest of mushrooms is due to two factors. First of all, it is good edibility. Secondly, oyster mushrooms are easy to grow.
Oyster mushrooms are prepared in various ways. Baked, breaded mushrooms are quite common in many cuisines of the world. As a rule, oyster mushrooms are grilled, breaded with butter or stewed. They also taste great if stored canned in oil.
Culinary experts recommend throwing a leg out because it is not very tender and too hard. Oyster mushrooms are cleaned and cut, like all other types of mushrooms.
Fried oyster mushrooms
Oyster mushrooms are great for cooking in a pan with or without other products. They are also perfectly breaded, as if they were cutlets, especially if they are soft young specimens.
Oyster mushrooms in seasoning
After a short boil for several minutes, the mushrooms are eaten, seasoned with oil, lemon, salt and pepper.
Stuffed oyster mushrooms
After several minutes of preliminary cooking, mushrooms are watered with mayonnaise and seasoned with parsley and finely chopped green onions. To boil the mushrooms, oyster mushrooms for this recipe add vinegar with salt and pepper to the water. Professional chefs recommend using young specimens.
Oyster mushrooms in oil
Oyster mushrooms, if put in oil or vinegar, retain their meatiness. Due to this property, oyster mushrooms are suitable for fillings, rice salads and other recipes.
Dried oyster mushrooms
These mushrooms are also suitable for drying and chopping. In this case, it is advisable to add to the mixture more fragrant than oyster mushrooms mushroom powders.
Nutrition and medicinal value oyster mushroom
Per 100 grams of mushrooms are:
- 38 calories
- 15-25 g of protein;
- 6.5 g carbohydrates;
- 2.2 g of fat;
- 2.8 g of fiber;
- 0.56 mg of thiamine;
- 0.55 mg riboflavin;
- 12.2 mg of niacin;
- 140 mg of phosphorus;
- 28 mg of calcium;
- 1.7 mg of iron.
Oyster mushrooms have a wide range of nutritional and medicinal properties. Like most edible mushrooms, it is an excellent source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber, they contain little fat. The mineral composition of the fungi varies depending on the species and the substrates used.
As a rule, oyster mushrooms contain the following minerals: Ca, Mg, P, K, Fe, Na, Zn, Mn and Se. They are also a source of vitamins B1 and B2, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and niacin.
Oyster mushrooms are considered a functional food because of their ability to have a positive effect on human health. Some scientific papers report the antimicrobial and antiviral properties of oyster mushrooms. Their methanol extracts inhibited the growth of Bacillus megaterium, S. aureus, E. coli, Candida glabrata, Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Ubiquitin, an antiviral protein, is also found in the fruit body of oyster mushrooms. In particular, fungi contain ribonuclease, which destroy the genetic material of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lectin protein isolated from the oyster mushroom fruit body has a similar effect.
Polysaccharides obtained from oyster mushroom mycelium exhibit antitumor activity. Doctors observed a 76% decrease in tumor cells with intraperitoneal administration of polysaccharide from culture broth to female Swiss albino mice.
It is noteworthy that oyster mushroom extracts showed antitumor activity against certain types of lung and cervical sarcomas. It is also reported that the level of antioxidants in fruiting bodies is higher compared to other commercial mushrooms.
Oyster mushrooms also exhibit hypolipidemic and antihyperglycemic properties. Mevinolin lowers cholesterol. In addition, a compound is developed from oyster mushrooms for use in antidiabetic medicine. The study showed that oral administration of aqueous extracts of their oyster mushrooms in mice with diabetes lowers blood glucose levels.
Many types of oyster mushrooms have biologically active compounds, such as glucans, vitamin C and phenol, which enhance the action of some enzymes that reduce liver cell necrosis. It is also reported that oyster mushroom extracts lower blood pressure, have immunomodulating activity and anti-aging property.
Oyster mushrooms contribute to weight loss. Oyster mushrooms, due to their high protein and low fat and carbohydrate content, help in weight loss. Therefore, if you lose weight, be sure to include oyster mushrooms in the diet.
Harm oyster mushroom
The beneficial properties of oyster mushrooms are undeniable and numerous. But these mushrooms can also be harmful to humans.
The most obvious sign that the body does not take oyster mushrooms in large quantities is abdominal pain after a person has eaten mushrooms in any form, fried or boiled. There are no other specific contraindications. Intemperance in food is a sign that the eater forgot about the sin of gluttony, and not a side effect of the fungus. A large number of oyster mushrooms provoke bloating, increased gas formation in the intestines, lead to diarrhea and other dyspeptic disorders.
All mushrooms, including oyster mushrooms, including, are digested for a long time in the digestive tract. This is good for the body, which extracts more nutrients, but bad for a sensitive stomach. Oyster mushrooms cause pain in the epigastric region in children and the elderly.
Oyster mushrooms allergize sensitive organisms. Therefore, they are used with caution in food allergies.
Like any other mushroom, oyster mushrooms are consumed only after heat treatment, since chitin in a raw mushroom is dangerous for humans.
Oyster mushrooms - video