Industrial waste is waste materials, raw materials and other elements that have lost their quality. The source of waste depends on the specifics of the enterprise (metallurgical, light, heavy, chemical). They are formed in various industries, but in the future they are either disposed of or reused.
MSW of industrial enterprises
Industrial garbage can be of various types:
- ash and slag;
- paper and cardboard;
- Construction Materials;
- food residues and more.
All these categories of garbage cause enormous damage to the environment, and if the composition contains poison, mercury and other harmful substances, this increases the danger to the environment.
Industrial Waste Management Rules
Wastes are collected at enterprises, sorted according to hazard classification. There are documents that govern the management of waste. After garbage collection, it should be taken to landfills and disposed of. This can only be done by companies that have special licenses. They must ensure the safe transportation of materials and use special equipment. Hazardous toxic substances must be transported in sealed containers. Those materials that are recyclable must be sent to a raw materials processing factory.
Characteristics of industrial waste
To determine the future fate of waste from industrial facilities, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of these materials:
- in which industry sector was formed;
- at what stage of production did the waste appear;
- its effect on human health;
- what harm is being done to the environment;
- amount of garbage;
- can it be recycled;
- what disposal methods to apply.
Toxic elements in industrial waste
Many types of industrial waste contain toxic elements that harm not only the environment, but also negatively affect people's health. Such materials must not be reused. They need to be disinfected, and then disposed of. For this, there are special landfills and landfills for hazardous waste. Toxic hazardous types of industrial garbage should include devices that work with chemicals, petroleum products, devices that contain chemicals, substances used in laboratories and medicine, gas pumping equipment. These and other types of waste must be handled very carefully.
According to the degree of harmful impact on the environment, there are five hazard classes of industrial waste:
- 1 - the most dangerous waste containing mercury and galvanic sludge. These materials cause irreversible damage to the environment, can lead to environmental disaster.
- 2 - high hazard class. The influence of substances of this group is eliminated only in 30 years. These include batteries, oils, paints, varnishes, elements with lead and acids.
- 3 - medium hazard. After the influence of these wastes, the medium is restored within 10 years. This is engine oil and items with lead.
- 4 - practically non-hazardous substances, since the harmful effect is eliminated in just 3 years. Most often, this group includes construction waste.
- 5 - class of non-hazardous waste. These are metals, paper products, wood and other materials. All these wastes can be recycled and they do not harm the environment.
The disposal of industrial waste
Norms have been developed for waste disposal from enterprises. First, waste is collected and stored in a designated place. Then they are divided into those that will be disposed of and those that will be recycled. It is worth noting that food waste will be sent to animal feed. When all the moments are settled, the waste is removed. Garbage sent for recycling will be buried at the landfill. Often, liquid wastes are washed off into water bodies, but before that they need to be decontaminated.
To export industrial waste, the company must have a license for this activity. Garbage is transported by specially equipped vehicles. Waste is often transported in an already sorted state, which is done in advance in accordance with a special registry. For the transportation of each type of material has its own requirements. For example, waste of the 1st hazard class must be transported very carefully in special containers so as not to harm the environment.
To reduce the environmental impact of the waste, there are disposal control mechanisms in place. Special bodies monitor the implementation of sanitary and environmental standards. It also supervises the process of disposal of garbage, from its collection to complete destruction. All recycling organizations are constantly audited. These and other measures help protect the natural environment from the effects of industrial waste.