Ground water is called one that is located at a depth of 25 meters from the surface of the earth. It is formed due to various water bodies and precipitation in the form of rain and snow. They seep into the ground and accumulate there. Groundwater differs from groundwater in that they have no pressure. In addition, their difference is that soil is sensitive to changes in the atmosphere. The depth at which groundwater can be located does not exceed 25 meters.
Ground water level
Groundwater is in close proximity to the surface of the earth, however, their level may vary depending on the topography and season. It will rise in high humidity, especially when it rains heavily and snow melts. And also nearby rivers, lakes, and other reservoirs influence the level. During a drought, the groundwater level decreases. At this time, he is considered the lowest.
Groundwater level is divided into two types:
- low when the level does not reach 2 meters. In such an area you can build buildings;
- high - level over 2 meters.
If you make incorrect calculations of the depth of groundwater, then this threatens: flooding of the building, the destruction of the foundation and other problems.
To find out exactly where the groundwater lies, you can first make simple observations. When the depth is shallow, such signs will be visible:
- the appearance of fog in the morning, on separate plots of land;
- a cloud of midges "hovering" above the ground in the evening;
- the area where moisture-loving plants grow well.
And you can also apply another folk method. In a clay pot, pour some desiccant material (such as salt or sugar). Then weigh it carefully. Wind into a piece of cloth and bury it in the ground to a depth of 50 centimeters. After a day - open and weigh again. Depending on the difference in weight, it will be possible to find out how close the water is to the surface of the earth.
You can also find out about the presence of groundwater from a hydrogeological map of the area. But the most effective way is exploratory drilling. The most commonly used column method.
When groundwater appears naturally, then it is potable. Liquid contamination is influenced by those located near the village and the city, as well as the proximity of water to the surface of the earth.
Groundwater is divided into species that are distinguished by their mineralization, so they are as follows:
- slightly saline;
The hardness of groundwater is also distinguished:
- common. It is divided into five types: very soft water, soft ground water, moderately hard water, hard water, very hard ground water;
In addition, there is groundwater, in which there are a lot of harmful substances. Such water, usually located near landfills, with the burial of chemical or radioactive waste.
Groundwater has its drawbacks, for example:
- various microorganisms (and pathogens too) in the composition of water;
- rigidity. This affects the decrease in the clearance of the pipes through which water is supplied, since specific deposits are deposited on them;
- turbidity due to the fact that there are certain particles in the composition of water;
- impurities in groundwater of various substances, microorganisms, salts and gases. All of them are able to change not only the color, but also the taste of water, its smell;
- a large percentage of minerals. It changes the taste of water, so a metallic taste appears;
- seepage of nitrates and ammonia into groundwater. They are very dangerous for human health.
So that the water becomes much better, it is necessary to carefully process it. This will help rid her of various contaminants.