Eczema in dogs is an inflammatory process in the skin of an animal. The disease is common and is caused by various pathogenetic factors. Timely diagnosis and treatment is hampered by the fact that the skin of the animal is covered with wool, hiding the onset of changes in the skin.
What is eczema in dogs
Eczema is a non-infectious inflammatory disease of the skin of a dog, which can begin acutely and turn into a chronic form with a relapsing course.
In view of the pathological process, eczema in dogs can be weeping and dry. Both types of the disease differ not only in the nature of the external manifestations, but also in a number of signs - the localization of lesions, the form of the pathological process, and age-related demorphism.
Wet eczema is characterized by the appearance of open wound surfaces on the dog’s skin. At the initial stage, as a result of the influence of various factors, a focus of inflammation of the upper layer of the epidermis is formed - irritation, redness. Then there are vesicles with serous discharge. Papules, opening, form open wounds. Subsequently, pathogenic microflora can infiltrate into them, causing secondary infection.
Dry eczema is manifested by the formation of exfoliating plates of keratinized epidermis devoid of hair. Often this type of eczema is characteristic of the chronic course of pathology. The acute course of the disease may be accompanied by febrile events.
In chronic eczema, a change in the condition of the skin occurs. She thickens, becomes loose. The lesions are localized in secluded places (under the ears, in the folds) or areas of increased mechanical stress (back, sides, tail, neck). In older animals, the risk of disease increases. Increased skin folding and copious undercoat also provoke eczema. Often, chronic eczema is localized in the back, head, face, paws.
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The causes of the disease
The appearance of eczema is influenced by various internal and external factors:
- injuries (rubbing with a muzzle, a collar, scratching at the places of insect bites, the effects of extreme temperatures);
- a high degree of infection with parasites (fleas, ticks, lice);
- poor hygiene (dirt, dust, high humidity in skin folds, irritating effects of saliva, tears);
- chemical exposure (unsuitable detergents, kerosene, gasoline, etc.);
- parasitic and infectious diseases;
- systemic diseases;
- metabolic disorders, vitamin deficiency ;
- autonomic disorders;
- genetic predisposition due to breed, etc.
Depending on the stage and type of eczema, the manifestations of pathology differ.
Symptoms and manifestations of pathology
For eczema in dogs, it is characteristic that at one site of the lesion, various stages of the process can be observed. With weeping eczema in dogs, it is noted:
- severe itching;
- increase in body temperature
- apathy and passivity;
- refusal of food;
- digestive upset and bowel movements;
- strong weight loss;
- nervousness, sleep disturbance.
Externally, the pathology is manifested in local hair loss, the formation of wounds with the expiration of the sucrose, which glues the wool. Individual foci of inflammation merge, forming vast areas. Dry appearance of eczema, as a rule, is accompanied by significant itching in the absence of pain. In the places where dry sections of the epidermis form, the hair thins, and then completely falls out.
Methods for diagnosing the disease
Some manifestations and symptoms are characteristic in general for many dermatoses, for example scabies, demodicosis, trichophytosis, etc. Therefore, to refine the diagnosis, differential studies are carried out:
- dog blood test;
- microscopic and bacterial examination of scraping;
- inspection of wool for eggs, larvae and adult blood-sucking insects.
When establishing the internal causes of the disease, additional examination methods may be required:
After confirming the preliminary diagnosis and finding out the cause of the pathology, an individual treatment regimen is developed.
Therapy of eczema in dogs
Treatment is carried out conservatively and comprehensively. First of all, annoying factors are eliminated:
- the dog is washed with special pH neutral shampoos;
- in the presence of skin parasites, sanitation is performed;
- exclude direct contact with the sun, high temperature or cold;
- eliminate the effects of chemicals and mechanical irritation.
Be sure to review the diet and diet - introduce products containing essential amino acids - cysteine and methionine, as well as trace elements (zinc, cobalt, sulfur). In addition to foods rich in minerals and vitamins, appropriate vitamin-mineral complexes can be used.
In case of weeping eczema with copious release of serous fluid, infusion of calcium chloride, sodium bromide or sodium hyposulfite is prescribed. Weakened anemic animals can be prescribed blood transfusions and drugs to enhance immunity . To suppress desensitization processes, a solution of ascorbic acid is administered, and retinol preparations are introduced to enhance regeneration and epidermal recovery processes.
To reduce the severity of pain, apply painkillers, novocaine blockade. If the lesion area is localized on the head or neck, then novocaine injections lead on the side where the foci are located to the area located next to the spine from 2-3 cervical to 3-4 thoracic vertebra. Before the procedure, the skin is shaved, treated with an antiseptic. Injection is staggered.
With severe itching and an allergic reaction, the dog is prescribed Diphenhydramine, Suprastin, Aminazin, etc. If eczema is subacute and chronic, then ultralight x-rays may be prescribed. Locally, foci of eczema are cleaned with special sterile wipes. The crusts are soaked with chlorhexidine. Topically applied ointments - Zinc, Xeromorphic, Ichthyol or ASD-3, Resorcin.
For the treatment of eczema, Dermozolone, Lorinden, Fluorocort, Dermatol, Corticomycin, etc. are used. Eczema causes a quick "getting used to" a certain drug, so the doctor should develop a drug alternation scheme.
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In case of weeping eczema, cold applications from solutions of rivanol, lead water, alum, tannin, etc. should be used. They have a drying, tanning and antimicrobial effect on the dog's skin. Also use dressings, the fabric of which is saturated with anti-inflammatory ointments - Sinalar, Lorinden, Dermozolon.
It is possible to treat the skin around the weeping focus and the focus itself with solutions of Malachite Grün or Brilliantgrün. With dry eczema, napkins impregnated with ASD + castor oil are applied to the outbreak. They are bandaged and changed twice a day. In the chronic stage, castor oil is replaced with fish oil.
After the process of inflammation is stopped to absorb skin seals, Ichthyol ointment, Naftalan, Vishnevsky ointment, Wilkinson ointment can be used. In areas with thinner and more delicate skin, Spermaceti cream, Lassar paste are used. Areas of persistent stagnation can be eliminated with paraffin baths.
After consulting with a veterinarian, you can apply decoctions of herbs and ointment from medicinal plants. Ointments of eczema can be applied with ointment from celandine, a string, burdock, beekeeping products, juice of freshly pressed leaves of plantain, etc.
Proper regular care of the pet, adequate treatment and following all the recommendations of the veterinarian will accelerate the recovery of the pet, and eliminate the risk of eczema returning in the future.