Class: Group 2 according to FCI. Pinschers and schnauzers, molosses and Swiss shepherd dogs. Section 3. Swiss shepherd dogs. Without working trials. Section 3. Swiss cattle dogs.
Color: glossy - black primary color, bright red - brown tan marks on the cheeks, eyebrows, paws and chest. Snow-white symmetrical marks on the head: the strip extending to the nose on both sides of the muzzle should not touch the red marks above the eyes and go wider than the corners of the mouth. Moderately wide white markings on the throat and chest without tears. White paws and a white tip of the tail are desirable. Small white spots under the tail and on the nape are allowed.
Sizes: Height at the withers of males 64–70 cm, bitches 58–66 cm. Ideally, males 66–68 cm, females 60–63 cm.
Life expectancy: an average of 10 to 13 years.
Bernese Mountain Dog is a universal companion. The flexible character and luxurious appearance make this breed unique.
Bernese Mountain Dog - an excellent family dog, which is able to "find a common language" with all household members. Many breeders sincerely believe that their pets can smile.
The friendliness of the breed allows them to find mutual understanding with any other domestic animals.
They are very kind to children, becoming real friends for them. Given this, the breed is very popular and lovers are not at all scared by the rather high price of the puppy.
More about the other best breeds of dogs: https://kot-pes.com/samyie-dobryie-porodyi-sobak/
Many years of natural selection and the work of breeders led to the creation of one of the most beautiful dogs on the planet.
Regarding the origin of the breed, there are two main versions.
According to the first of them, the breed was known since the time of the Ancient Roman Empire, the mention of this peasant dog dates back to the first century BC. e., and belongs to the ancient Roman author Columellas.
The breed description is almost completely consistent with modern breed standards. At that time, the Bernese Mountain Dogs grazed cattle, helped hunt and defended their masters and their homes.
Other historical sources say that the ancestors of the breed were brought by the Romans after the victory of Caesar and the announcement of Switzerland (at that time Helvetia) by the Roman province.
Today, according to the official version of the origin of the breed, recorded in the cynological literature, the line is considered: the Tibetan Great Dane - Roman Molossian - Central European Dog-shaped dog - Sennenhund.
In the Middle Ages, inheriting the Roman legionnaires, the inhabitants of Switzerland used the Sennenhund in battles.
In the middle of the XV century, this breed was at risk of complete destruction.
This was directly related to the decree of the Zurich burgomaster on the complete extermination of all large peasant dogs destroying the vineyards of the aristocracy.
Peasants could not remain without their indispensable assistants working in cheese dairies (dogs transported milk for cheese production), guarding housing and herding herds. There was an uprising - the burgomaster was beheaded, and the breed was saved.
In the XIX century, the number of cheese producers increased, dogs still drove products. Almost always, they were accompanied by children of peasants, which is why, during this period, balanced animals were selected.
For the second time, the breed was on the verge of extinction at the end of the 19th century. Oddly enough, the reason for this was the huge popularity of the St. Bernards.
Two-color representatives of the ancestors of the Sennenhund were sold under the guise of St. Bernards, whose price was very high, while the three-color representatives remained as a draft force among poor peasants living in remote areas of Switzerland (for example, Schwarzenburg).
The villagers came up with several names for their dogs, in accordance with their color:
- Rings - dogs with a “white collar” collar
- Blessy - there was a white longitudinal stripe on the head
- Barry - dogs without a longitudinal strip or with a thin mark
- Gelbuckler - by association with yellow cheeks
- Furaugen - "four-eyed", the name speaks of yellow eyebrows
Some owners briefly put their pets in carts to ride their children
The breed is officially recognized by the winemaker and hotel owner F. Shertenleib, who lives in Burgdorf.
He really liked the three-color peasant dogs and, traveling around the country, he began to buy their most typical representatives.
The first step towards legalizing the breed was the participation of six males and one female at an exhibition in Bern.
Subsequently, Professor Jaim, who investigated four varieties of Swiss mountain dogs, made a huge contribution to the standardization of the breed.
The formation of the modern type, its name and description of the breed belongs to him. Thus, four main varieties of the breed were identified:
- Bernese Mountain Dog;
- Entlebucher Mountain Dog;
- Appenzeller mountain dog;
- Gross Sennenhund (Greater Swiss).
1907 was the year the breed was born: the standard was adopted, a description of the breed was published and the Dürbach Club was founded, which was renamed the Bernese Mountain Dog Club in 1912.
Adjustments to the standard were made in 1951 and 1973. In 1993, the modern standard was adopted (FCI No. 45).
Six generations of mountain dogs were represented at the 1947 exhibition in Basel. In the middle of the 20th century, the breed, losing its characteristic temperament and type, needed an influx of “fresh blood”.
The blood of Newfoundlands initially appeared completely by accident - the unplanned mating of a male Pluto von Erlengut and a bitch of the Bernese Mountain Dog.
The great-grandson of this couple, perfectly painted Alex von Angetdorf became the 1956 world champion. It was he who influenced the breed, becoming a producer of 51 litters.
The 80s of the XX century, the breed reached a peak in popularity in almost all countries of the world. Accordingly, the price of puppies immediately rose.
A dog with a stable psyche, calm and unobtrusive in the house. The pride of the representatives of the breed does not allow the Bernese Mountain Dogs to beg for mastery and attention.
They do not perceive physical punishment at all. You can control the dog only with the help of the set authority of the owner.
For animals and children, the attitude develops with a note of indulgence. These dogs, like German boxers , easily get along with other pets.
Despite all of the above, a calm burn without the slightest delay can, like a fighting dog , turn into a fearless and ferocious defender if the owner, his family or property is in danger.
On the account of the Bernese Mountain Dog (pictured) is not one saved human life
Despite the initial use of these dogs for herding, guarding and working in teams, today it is primarily a companion dog.
Nevertheless, representatives of the breed are widely used in rescue operations in the mountains or at disaster sites. Newfoundland genes seem to be triggering.
Dogs also work in the police, like the Hovawarts and Groenendals . A great flair makes them excellent search agents. They perceive agility very well and achieve success in guard duty and protective training.
Important! Bernese Mountain Dog is a great dog for families with small children. A brave, intelligent and intelligent friend will gladly substitute his mighty back for a child who is just learning to walk.
Due to its versatility, representatives of the breed have become real movie stars, starring in many feature films and commercials.
How to choose a dog
The main criteria for choosing a puppy of the Bernese Mountain Dog are the color, structure and character of the small representative of the breed.
The width of the marks should be closer to the "golden mean", however, neither a thin white stripe on the face, nor a large mask, in principle, are considered a vice.
The same cannot be said for the high-rising white color on the paws or blue eyes. "White socks", as well as the white tip of the tail are desirable, but not required.
The description of the breed allows a small white spot on the back of the head, but it is not desirable. The red tan should create a border between black and white. The perfect puppy is shown in the following photo.
The main criterion for choosing should be the overall healthy appearance of the puppy
Having dealt with the color, we move on to the bite of the puppy. It should be normal - a snack and, conversely, "overshot" are unacceptable.
You should also pay attention to the filled muzzle, thick legs and a wide back - all this together guarantees you subsequently a large dog that meets the breed standards.
In this case, the puppy's ears also act as an indicator, the larger they are, the more he will grow.
Be sure to pay attention to the nature of the small Bern. A timid and cowardly puppy will not change anything. An adult dog with such traits will be disqualified at the show and not allowed to breed.
The puppy must behave at ease, he boldly and innocently approaches a stranger, allowing him to stroke himself.
Hearing a sharp enough sound, a small barn should not run away cowardly, but rather, be curious and study a noisy subject. For this test, a keychain is most often used, which is thrown close to the puppy.
Excessive viciousness of the puppy is also unacceptable. Showing aggression at a young age, the puppy can grow into a vicious uncontrollable dog.
Watching the puppy, again, you should follow the rule of the "golden mean" and choose one that shows neither excessive cowardice, nor aggression.
The puppy's price directly depends on the destination that you plan for him. A pet will cost you less than a future exhibition winner.
Given the origin of the breed, dogs are positioned to cater to the owner. Because of this, they require a lot of attention from the owner. With its deficiency, Burns may even develop depression.
Oddly enough, these are quite lazy dogs. They are ready to play actively, but not for long. Given this, dogs are perfect for inactive people who prefer a moderate life rhythm.
Following her cattle dog instincts, the Bernese Mountain Dogs will constantly monitor the situation, considering themselves responsible for everything that happens.
These features should be considered when caring for your dog.
Watch for the proper nutrition of the dog, which is directly related to its well-being and good exterior. Hygiene rules should be observed, in addition to combing, keep clean eyes and ears.
The article https://kot-pes.com/kak-chistit-ushi-sobake/ will tell you how to clean your dog’s ears properly.
Pay attention to the dog's claws and do not allow them to grow excessively. Periodically, you may need to trim them in the veterinary salon or, having such skills, on your own.
Proper care will ensure your dog a long life.
Representatives of this breed molt quite strongly. In order for the wool not to fly all over the house, it is necessary to comb the dog regularly.
In the summer, it is advisable to carry out the procedure daily. The rest of the time, when the molting is moderate, you can comb out the dog with a furminator once a week, or even once every two weeks.
It is important to prevent the formation of lumps from tangled wool. They will have to be cut, but doing this is constantly undesirable.
Important! Given the luxurious, dense coat, dogs are prone to overheating. Protect your pet from this.
Particular attention should be paid to physical activity. Unlike similar dog breeds, the Bern does not need a large number of them.
You can just walk with your pet for a long time, from time to time making light jogs, play with him.
Important! For the Bernese Mountain Dog, the main thing is the owner's company and his attention. No matter how energetic your walks will be, the main thing is that you are nearby.
The game with a stick shown in the photo is one of the most beloved of this breed.
Both a puppy and an adult mountain dog need a full, balanced diet. Feeding is the key to the health and longevity of your pet.
Of particular importance to representatives of the breed are vitamins of various groups. Based on the foregoing, protein foods should be present in the diet of a monthly baby.
Do not exceed their content in food above the mark of 18 - 26%, since inactive dogs are prone to obesity. It is also possible to add dry feed in moderate amounts.
Be sure to add cottage cheese, eggs, milk and fish to the diet. Porridge should occupy no more than 1/3 of the food received. From five months, vegetables and fruits are added to food.
The article https://kot-pes.com/kakie-krupy-mozhno-davat-sobakam/ will tell about what cereals can be given to dogs
In order for the food to be the most complete, you should prepare the so-called meat mix - mixed scar, diaphragm, kaltyk, heart, udder, liver, chicken paws and stomachs (the latter play an important role in digestion).
As for the diet, it is necessary to adhere to such a schedule:
- 1-2 months - 5-6 times a day
- 2-4 months - 4-5
- 4-6 months - 3-4
- 7-12 months - 2-3
- From 1 year - 2 meals a day
In the first days of the baby’s stay in your home, you should not drastically change his diet, observed by the previous owners. This will avoid a possible upset stomach.
Important! Food should be placed on a stand. This way you avoid bending the fragile ridge of your puppy.
The health of the Bernese Mountain Dog is directly dependent on its owner.
Long walks in the fresh air, communication with the pet, proper nutrition and lack of stress contribute to the excellent well-being of Burns for many years.
If the dog behaves unnaturally, it is urgent to take her to the veterinarian. A timely diagnosis increases the chances of recovery.
The main diseases that the owners of the Bernese Mountain Dogs may face are:
- Joint dysplasia - characteristic of all large dogs
- Malignant Hysteocytosis
- Congenital renal disease
- Weeping eczema
- Inversion of the eyelids
Important! Almost all of this can be avoided if you adhere to a proper diet of the dog and give the dog moderate exercise.
Health depends on timely vaccination, and even your pet’s life
The puppy is first vaccinated at the age of 1.5 - 2 months. As a rule, a multivalent drug is used that protects against hepatitis, leptospirosis, and parovirus enteritis.
At six months of age, a comprehensive vaccination and vaccination against rabies is carried out. Similar procedures are carried out for a one-year-old dog.
Subsequently, vaccinations must be done annually. Do not forget about the periodic, as a rule, seasonal treatment of burns from fleas and ticks.
The price of medicines is constantly changing, but vaccination can protect your pets from serious diseases.
A pair for free mating should be selected taking into account the sympathy of animals for each other. The dogs in the photo are clearly friendly
The first estrus in representatives of the breed occurs at the age of one. A 6, 7-month cycle is considered normal. The first knitting is recommended to be carried out with an experienced specialist who will tell you all the details of this matter.
It is best to mate on 10 - 13 days from the beginning of estrus . During this period, the discharge from the loop of the female becomes light pink and when stroking on the back, she takes the tail to the side, which indicates her readiness for mating.
Important! Both the male and the bitch of the Bernese Mountain Dog must be knitted before the age of three, since subsequently the male, which is so inactive in this regard, can completely lose interest in mating.
Bernese Mountain Dog: A dog that smiles
Bernese Mountain Dog is a universal companion. The flexible character and luxurious appearance make this breed unique.