Determination of soil erosion
Erosion is the damage to the soil by wind and water, the movement of destruction products and their redeposition. Damage to the soil (erosion) by water is manifested mainly on the slopes from which water flows, rain or melt. Erosion is planar (when the soil is washed away uniformly with water drains, which does not have time to absorb), it is jetted (shallow gaps are formed, which are eliminated by conventional processing), and there is also deep erosion (when soil and rocks are eroded by strong currents of water). Destruction of the soil by the wind, otherwise called deflation, can develop on any type of terrain, even on the plains. Deflation happens everyday (when winds of low speed lift soil particles into the air and transfer them to other areas), the second type of wind erosion is periodic, i.e. dust storms (when winds lift the entire top layer of soil into the air at high speed, sometimes even with crops , and carries these masses over long distances).
Types of soil erosion
Depending on the degree of destruction, two types of soil erosion can be distinguished: normal erosion, that is, natural, and accelerated, that is anthropogenic. The first type of erosion is slow and does not affect soil fertility. Accelerated erosion is closely related to human economic work, that is, the soil is improperly cultivated, vegetation cover during cattle grazing, deforestation, and so on is disturbed. With the rapid development of erosion, soil fertility decreases, crops are damaged, agricultural lands become uncomfortable lands due to ravines, this makes it difficult to cultivate fields, rivers and ponds flood. Due to soil erosion, roads, power lines, communications, and more are destroyed. It causes tremendous damage to agriculture.
Soil Erosion Prevention
For many years, the fight against soil erosion has been one of the important state tasks in the development of agriculture. To solve it, various zonal complexes are being developed that complement each other, for example, organizational and economic, agrotechnical, hydrotechnical, forestry and drainage anti-erosion measures.
A little about each event. Agrotechnical measures include deep processing of plots across the slopes, sowing, plowing, which alternates every two to three years with conventional plowing, slope slitting, spring loosening of the field by strips, slope tinning. All this contributes to the regulation of rainwater and meltwater runoff, and, accordingly, significantly reduce soil runoff. In areas where wind erosion is widespread, instead of plowing, they use plane-cutting cultivating the land with cultivators, that is, plane-cutters. This reduces atomization and helps accumulate more moisture.
Each area that is susceptible to soil erosion plays an important role in crop rotation, and in addition, the sowing of crops of tall plants.
In forest improvement measures, protective forest plantations have a great effect. Forest strips are shelterproof, girder and cantankerous.
In hydraulic engineering activities, terracing is used on very steep slopes. In such places, shafts are built to hold water, and ditches, on the contrary, to drain excess water, are fast in channels of hollows and ravines.
Soil protection against erosion
Erosion is considered the largest socio-economic disaster. It is proposed to follow the following provisions: firstly, it is easier to prevent erosion than then fight it, eliminating its consequences; in the environment it is not possible to find soils that would be completely resistant to erosion; due to erosion, changes in the main functions of the soil occur; this process is very complex, the measures applied against it must be comprehensive.
What affects the erosion process?
Any erosion can occur due to such factors:
- changes in climatic conditions;
- terrain features;
- natural disasters;
- anthropogenic activity.
Most often, water erosion occurs on mountain slopes, as a result of runoff of rain and melt water. The intensity of the soil can be washed off in a continuous layer or in separate streams. As a result of water erosion, the upper fertile layer of the earth is demolished, which contains rich elements that nourish the plants. Linear erosion is a more progressive destruction of the earth when small gullies turn into large pits and ravines. When erosion reaches such proportions, the land becomes unsuitable for agriculture or any other type of activity.
Air masses can inflate small particles of the earth and carry them over great distances. With significant wind gusts, the soil can disperse in significant quantities, which leads to weakening of the plants, and then to their death. If a wind storm flies over a field where crops are just beginning to emerge, they can become covered with a layer of dust and be destroyed. Also, wind erosion affects the fertility of the earth, as the upper layer is destroyed.
Consequences of soil erosion
The problem of land erosion is an urgent and acute problem for many countries of the world. Since land fertility directly affects crop yields, erosion exacerbates famine in some regions, as erosion can destroy crops. Erosion also affects the reduction of plants, respectively, it reduces the population of birds and animals. And the worst is the complete depletion of the soil, the restoration of which takes hundreds of years.
Methods of soil protection against water erosion
Such a phenomenon as erosion is dangerous for the soil, therefore, it is necessary to carry out complex actions to protect the earth. To do this, you need to regularly monitor the process of erosion, draw up special maps and plan the chores correctly. Land reclamation work must be carried out taking into account soil protection. Crops need to be planted in stripes and pick up a combination of such plants that will protect the soil from leaching. An excellent method of protecting the land will be the planting of trees, creating several forest strips near the fields. On the one hand, tree stands will protect crops from precipitation and wind, and on the other hand they will strengthen the soil and prevent erosion. If there is a bias in the fields, then protective strips of perennial grasses are planted.
Ground erosion protection
To prevent soil weathering and preserve the fertile layer of the earth, certain protective work must be carried out. To do this, first of all, a crop rotation is carried out, that is, planting type crops is changed annually: cereal plants are grown for one year, then perennial grasses. Also, strips of trees are planted against strong winds, which create a natural barrier to air masses and protect crops. In addition, nearby you can grow tall plants for protection: corn, sunflower. It is necessary to increase soil moisture so that moisture accumulates and protects the roots of plants, strengthening them in the ground.
The following actions will help against all types of soil erosion:
- the construction of special terraces against erosion;
- sideration technique;
- planting shrubs in stripes;
- dam organization;
- regulation of the melt water flow regime.
All the above methods have different levels of complexity, but they must be used in combination to protect the earth from erosion.