Soil is one of the most important elements of our planet. Distribution of plant organisms, as well as a crop that is extremely important for humans, depends on the quality and condition of the soil. There are many varieties of soil, among which stand out sod-carbonate. You can meet this type of soil in brown forests. Soils of this species are formed fragmentarily and most often they can be found in places containing calcium carbonate, that is, closer to the territories where various rocks are located (for example, limestone, marble, dolomites, marls, clay, etc.).
Characterization, signs and composition of the soil
As a rule, sod-carbonate soils can be found on the slope, flat area, flat and elevated relief. They form near rocks, which include clastic material of calcareous composition. The soil may be under forest, meadow, and shrubby plant types.
A distinctive feature of sod-carbonate soils is a high humus content (up to 10% or more). Elements such as humic acids may also be present in the soil. In most cases, exploring this type of soil, the upper horizons give a neutral reaction, the lower - alkaline; very rarely slightly acidic. The degree of unsaturation is affected by the depth of carbonates. So, at high levels, the indicator ranges from 5 to 10%, at low - up to 40%.
Sod-carbonate soils are quite peculiar. Despite the fact that they are formed under forest vegetation, many processes that are characteristic of this type of soil are weakened or completely absent. For example, in sod-carbonate soils there are no signs of leaching or podzolization. This is due to the fact that plant residues entering the soil decompose in an environment with a high content of calcium. As a result, there is an increase in the amount of humic acid and the formation of sedentary organomineral compounds, resulting in the formation of a humus-accumulating horizon.
Morphological profile of the soil
Sod-carbonate soil consists of the following horizons:
- A0 - power is from 6 to 8 cm; poorly decomposed plant litter in forest litter;
- A1 - power from 5 to 30 cm; humus-accumulating horizon of brownish-gray or dark gray color, with plant roots;
- B - power from 10 to 50 cm; lumpy layer of brownish-gray color;
- Cca - a breed of dense, loose form.
Gradually, this type of soil evolves and passes into the soil of the podzolic type.
Types of Sod-Carbonate Soils
This type of soil is ideal for vineyards and gardening. It has been established that it is sod-carbonate soil that has high fertility. But before planting, you should delve into the process and choose the most suitable soil option. The following types of soil:
- typical - distributed in birzemo-forest regions. Most often it can be found in broad-leaved, oak, beech-oak forests near weakly weathered, low-power eluvium of calcareous rocks. The total thickness of the profile is about 20-40 cm and contains crushed stone, rock fragments. The soil contains humus of the order of 10-25%;
- leached - distributed by fragments in the birch-forest regions. It occurs in broad-leaved forests, on a weathered and powerful thickness of eluvium. The humus content is about 10-18%. Power varies from 40 to 70 cm.
Sod-carbonate soils are suitable for growing crops, high-bearing stands and broad-leaved species.