Soil is an unusually important element of nature. For her well-being and good condition, favorable conditions, including water regime, are also needed. In other words, the soil must be moistened according to its needs. The water regime of the soil is all the fluid entering the earth, its condition and expenditure. For the favorable development of the soil, it is necessary to maintain water balance.
Features of the water regime of the soil
The water regime includes many processes, which include the entry of moisture into the soil, as well as its physical condition, movement control and flow rate. This system consists of various elements: absorption, filtration, capillary rise, surface runoff, physical evaporation, freezing and freezing, liquid condensation.
Water balance is achieved due to the arrival of precipitation and additional sources in the form of groundwater and surface runoff. Fluid flow occurs due to evaporation, transpiration and soil infiltration. There is a special coefficient of moisture to help establish the type of water regime.
Types of water regime
There are six main types of moisture in the soil:
- Permafrost - often observed in the tundra. It is characterized by permafrost. This feature is achieved due to the close location of the frozen water-resistant horizon. With such a flow of moisture, precipitation is very little, however, in summer the soil is oversaturated with water.
- Flushing - most often found in forest areas in which rainfall exceeds evaporation. Every year, all soil and available rocks are washed with liquid to groundwater, as a result of which colossal leaching occurs, and all soil formation products are carried outside the profile, which makes the soil acidic. Waterlogging of the soil often develops in such regions.
- Periodically flushing - the main features of the water regime - is a balanced precipitation and evaporation. During periods of drought, the soil is well moistened, not dropping to the groundwater, during high humidity there is a through wetting or leaching regime (this process can be carried out only once every several years and provokes the formation of gray forest soils, leached and podzolized black soils).
- Unwashed - most commonly found in steppe, desert and dry steppe zones. This mode is characterized by strong evaporation, exceeding atmospheric precipitation in the soil. All incoming fluid focuses on the upper soil levels. In such soils, there is a "dead horizon" that always remains wet.
- High-altitude - this type is found in deserts, dry steppes and semi-deserts. In such regions, evaporation is much higher than precipitation. Moreover, the process of evaporation of the liquid takes place at the deepest levels, up to groundwater. If the soil contains a large amount of salt, then the formation of solonetzes is likely.
- Irrigation - occurs in soils that are irrigated artificially. In this mode, the washing and non-washing types are connected.
The water regime also contributes to the formation of automorphic, semihydromorphic and hydromorphic soils.
Water regime should be regulated. This will contribute to a favorable water supply to plants. There are measures aimed at changing and adjusting the water balance, for example, draining very moist soils or irrigating the soil in arid regions.
Application of the developed measures will optimize the water regime of the soil.