In coniferous forests podzolic soils are formed. The species of forest flora and organic acids actively participate in the origin of this type of soil. This type of land is suitable for the growth of coniferous species of trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, mosses and lichens.
Podzol Formation Conditions
The podzolic type of soil is formed under the following conditions:
- low air temperatures;
- flushing aqua mode;
- low nitrogen content in leaves on the ground;
- slow activity of microorganisms;
- acid-forming fungal decomposition;
- seasonal freezing of soils;
- fallen leaves form the underlying layer;
- leaching of acids into the lower layers of the soil.
Coniferous forest conditions contribute to the formation of a special type of land - podzolic.
The composition of podzolic soil
In general, podzolic soils are an extensive group of soils that have certain characteristics. The soil consists of several layers. The first is forest litter, which occupies a level of 3 to 5 centimeters, has a brown tint. The composition of this layer is various organic compounds - foliage, conifers, mosses, animal excrement. The second layer takes from 5 to 10 centimeters, and has a gray-white color. This is a humus-eluvial horizon. The third is the podzolic layer. It is fine-grained, dense, does not have a clear structure, ash-white color. It lies at the level of 10-20 centimeters. The fourth is the illuvial layer, which is at a level of 10 to 30 centimeters, has a brown and yellow color, very dense and without structure. It contains not only humus, but also particles of silt, various oxides. Then lies a layer enriched in humus, and another illuvial horizon. After this comes the parent rock. The hue of the layer depends on the color of this breed. These are mainly yellow-whitish shades.
In general, the podzol contains about two percent of humus, which makes the land not very fertile, but this is enough for the growth of coniferous trees. The low content of beneficial trace elements is due to harsh conditions.
The natural zone of coniferous forests is characterized by such a type of soil as podzolic soils. It is considered infertile, but is perfect for the growth of larch, fir, pine, cedar, spruce and other evergreen trees. In the process of podzolic soil formation, all living organisms of the coniferous forest ecosystem participate.