Chanterelles are one of the most desirable for collecting edible mushrooms . They grow separately, scattered in groups and sometimes form large families in the forest. The mushroom pulp is thick, hard, the smell is similar to apricot. Chanterelles are one of the most prolific mushrooms and have many varieties. Although it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between species, foxes are generally easy to identify.
Distinctive features of chanterelle mushrooms
All types of mushrooms have a funnel-shaped cap with a diameter of up to 10 cm with a wavy, uneven edge. Color varies from light to dark yellow. When growing in groups, as often happens, the legs are bent and sometimes join together at the base of the mycelium. Leg veins are thick and descend down the stem. Their shape is straight across the entire leg, but the veins are bifurcated and more sinuous closer to the cap. Chanterelles grow in height from 6 to 9 cm.
The imprint of the spores: from pale yellow to creamy white, sometimes with a slight pinkish tinge. Gills bifurcated, the same color as the rest of the fungus. They are straight or wavy and always descend down the leg.
Where do chanterelles grow
Mushrooms are most often found in deciduous forest soils near oak and under beech trees. They are mycorrhizal, which means that the fungus has a symbiotic relationship with the roots of the tree. Chanterelles grow in many countries, including Canada, USA, Europe, the Mediterranean, in some parts of eastern and southern Australia and Asia.
Chanterelle picking season
Mushrooms bear fruit from June to October and even in November, when autumn is mild. Harvested from October to March in a warmer climate .
Mushrooms have a weak apricot smell and a mild taste. Chanterelles are a perfect edible mushroom that is used in risotto and omelet dishes, and they certainly have enough flavor to make delicious soups or sauces.
Types of Chanterelles
Distributed in European coniferous and mixed forests , in North and Central America, in Asia and Africa. It is an edible mushroom that even an inexperienced mushroom picker easily identifies.
The medium-sized chanterelle is ordinary yellowish, white, orange-yellow and rarely pink. The gills are the same color as the rest of the fungus.
First, convex, with a curled edge (s), it becomes funnel-shaped with a wavy edge towards old age. It happens quite irregularly shaped. Older specimens are more orange, especially after several rains. Samples that receive a lot of sun are discolored to a whitish color and have a slightly leathery appearance. In moist, mossy areas with a shadow on the chanterelle caps, green moss forms.
They look like ridges that are quite wavy and always run down the leg.
The length of the stem is usually equal to the width of the hat of the same color as the rest of the mushroom. The flesh is yellowish white. The imprint of the spores is whitish or slightly yellow.
Enthusiasts begin their search for the mushroom in late spring, after rains. Sometimes, when the weather is wet, the fruiting body of the mushrooms is damp with reduced quality. Depending on the region and latitude, July-October is the period when the fruiting of the common chanterelle peaks.
Barely convex at a young age. The edge subsequently expands, in the form of a wavy blade. The surface is villous-scaly, especially near the edge. The color is grayish with brown shades. The intensity of the tone depends on age and environmental conditions, it is lighter in dry weather and darker if wet.
It is formed by gills and folds, spaced and branched, very noticeable when fully developed, the color of this pseudo-hymenophore is gray with shades, bluish in young individuals, eventually acquires a dark gray color after maturation of the spores.
Curved, corrugated, straightens like a fan during the development of a hymenophore. The color is similar to the shade of the hat, a little lighter, sometimes slightly faded near the base.
Mushroom pickers do not often find this mushroom. In the growing areas there are quite a lot of gray chanterelles in broad-leaved forests, where they prefer chestnut groves and calcareous soils.
Recognized by the characteristic flamingo-pink color and the presence of false gills on the underside of the hat. The mushroom is smaller and more elegant than other chanterelles; it grows in deciduous forests.
Chanterelle cinnabar-red mycorrhiza with hardwoods, especially with beech and oak, aspen and other hardwoods. It grows alone, absent-mindedly or in the community in summer and autumn.
Convex or broadly convex, bald, dry at a young age, becomes flat or shallowly hollow, and waves increase and appear. Color from flamingo pink to "cinnabar red", pinkish-orange or reddish-orange.
The lower surface with well-located, well-developed false gills that run along the stem; cross veins often develop, they are colored like a hat or a little paler.
Equal in youth, but tapers to maturity at the base, bald, dry, colored like a hat or paler. Basal mycelium from white to pale yellow in color. Pulp: whitish or in the color of a hat, does not change color when sliced. Smell and taste: the smell is sweet and fragrant; the taste is not distinctive or slightly spicy.
A symbiotic mushroom grows under deciduous trees (chestnut and beech) and less often under conifers. The fruiting period is summer and autumn.
Recognize the mushroom by a hat of a thin and irregular shape, with a flexible surface, a bright orange cuticle and a wavy edge. In youth, the hat is convex, and then funnel-shaped, the cuticle is finely scaly, orange or orange-pink, pales with age.
The legs are straight, thick, paler than the hat.
Lamellar, moderately branched, bifurcated or mesh, in the color of a hat. Pulp: hard, whitish, yellowish or slightly pinkish. Exudes a faint smell of apricot.
It occurs in Asia, Africa and North America singly, in groups or clusters under deciduous trees. The mushroom produces fruiting bodies in summer and autumn.
Funnel-shaped top and wavy edges. The surface is dry, slightly covered with a layer of thin fibers, deep bright orange-yellow. Older specimens turn yellow, the extreme edges of the cap become pale yellow, in young specimens they bend down.
The spore-bearing surface is initially smooth, but channels or ridges develop on it gradually. Small gills look like veins less than 1 mm wide. The color is pale yellow and the same with the surface of the legs.
Pretty thick, cylindrical, tapering to the base. Inside the legs are filled with fleecy mycelium, solid. Rarely are fruiting bodies combined with stems at the base.
Solid or partially hollow (sometimes due to insect larvae), pale yellow.
A unique look highly appreciated by gourmets, which is easily recognized by the shape of the “pipe”, thin and small fleshy, brown and with a fringe hat. The stem is bright orange and internally empty.
At first, deep in the center, it is convex, in the form of an elongated pipe, then more open, it expands, the edge is sinuous, lobed, sometimes jagged. The color is reddish brown, the bottom is orange or darker brownish gray.
Almost smooth and rounded, with slightly raised veins, sinuous and branched. The color is creamy yellow, orange-yellow, sometimes with a hint of pink, but the color is always less bright than the hat.
Tubular, hollow, smooth, straight or curved, very variable in shape, resembles a funnel with longitudinal grooves. The color is orange or egg yolk, sometimes with a touch of pink. The mushroom has a strong smell of fresh plums and a sweet taste.
The symbiont mushroom, grows from late summer to late autumn, in groups of hundreds of specimens in conifers (near the pine) and in deciduous forests.
It forms mycorrhiza with conifers in moss or on well-rotted, moss-covered logs in swamps.
At first it is more or less convex, it soon becomes vase-like, at the final stage holes form in the center. The edges in adulthood are wavy. Smooth, sticky or waxy fresh. Color from dark yellowish brown to blackish brown, with age it becomes grayish-brown or grayish. Sometimes radial patterns are slightly visible.
Descends along the stem. Young mushrooms with crests and folds. With age, false gills develop, which often branch and have cross veins. The color is yellowish to grayish or brownish, sometimes slightly lilac.
It becomes empty with age, bald, with a wax coating. Color from orange to orange-yellow at a young age, dull yellow, brownish-orange with age. The basal mycelium is whitish to pale yellow. The taste is not distinctive; the smell is not obvious or slightly aromatic.
What is the difference between false chanterelles and edible
2 types of mushrooms confused with chanterelles:
Talker orange (inedible)
The fruit bodies of the mushrooms are yellow-orange with a funnel-shaped hat up to 8 cm across, which has a felt surface. Thin, often bifurcated gills on the underside of the cap extend along the smooth leg. Mushroom edibility reports are not always reliable. The mushroom is eaten, although it is not particularly aromatic. Some authors report that it upsets the digestive tract.
Omphalot olive (poisonous)
Poisonous orange gill mushroom, which for an inexperienced eye is similar to some species of chanterelles. Distributed in the forest regions of Europe, where it grows on decaying stumps, roots of deciduous trees.
Unlike chanterelles, olive omphaloths have real, sharp, not bifurcated gills. The inside of the stalk is orange; the chanterelles are lighter inside.
How to distinguish false foxes from real ones - video
Health benefits of chanterelles
Like any other forest mushrooms, chanterelles are tasty and healthy food that contains:
- a large amount of vitamin D2, it helps the human body absorb calcium;
- significant amount of protein;
- vitamin A;
- eight essential amino acids that are valuable to the human body.
This type of mushroom is quite intolerant of elevated nitrogen levels and is not found in areas with high levels of air pollution. This is a mycorrhizal species and, therefore, is always associated with trees that do not negatively affect human health, including oak, beech, pine and birch.
Fruit bodies are relatively long-lived, partly because they resist fungal parasites and are rarely eaten by larvae. It is good to know that the harvest is not affected by arthropods. This feature contributes to the popularity of chanterelles as an edible species!
Harm chanterelles for the body
Edible species of chanterelles are not harmful to humans with proper cooking and consumption, like any other mushrooms. Pregnant women, children and the elderly eat with caution.
How cooks cook chanterelles
In the world there are many different recipes for cooking chanterelle dishes. Some people use soups, others make pasta sauces from them, and others make salt. Gourmets are consumed with sweets and jams. In the end, no matter how the chanterelles cook, they are delicious!
Chanterelle is really a wonderful mushroom when fried. After drying, it is an excellent seasoning for dishes when used in small quantities. When used in large doses, it becomes an excellent natural flavor.
The taste makes the chanterelle suitable for chicken, veal, pork, fish, vegetables, rice, pasta, potatoes, eggs, nuts and fruits. It is not recommended to mix chanterelles with highly flavored products.
From the grated powder of chanterelles, vinegar, oil or liquor is prepared with the taste of mushrooms.
Chanterelles in the national economy
Chanterelles were used to dye wool, fabrics and paper, it will give a muted yellow color to the processed materials.
Chanterelle mushrooms - video