Soil is an invaluable element of our planet, without which human existence is impossible. The earth provides people with food resources, many animals feed on the gifts of nature grown in the ground. Soil pollution leads to a decrease in its fertility, which in the future threatens a global catastrophe for all living things on our planet.
Causes of Soil Pollution
Let's be honest, the main source of soil pollution on our planet is man. Quite often, human activities are so illiterate that they cause extraordinary damage to the environment. In addition, a huge amount of waste, substances that contain chemical elements fall into the ground, which provokes a violation of the biological cycle of soil systems and not only.
The main sources of soil pollution include:
- The functioning of municipal enterprises and residential buildings - the main problem of the modern world - is household garbage. Among the waste products are leftovers from food products, building materials and other elements. All garbage is concentrated in landfills, after which it is burned in many cases, which leads to clogging of large areas and the entry of harmful and toxic substances into the soil.
- The functioning of industrial enterprises - as a result of the activities of any company, a large amount of waste is generated. These can be toxic substances that have a detrimental effect not only on the soil, but also on living things. Many metallurgical enterprises dump heavy metal salts, cyanides, arsenic, beryllium compounds, mercury, lead and other dangerous elements that can accumulate both in the soil and in the bodies of people and animals. A key problem of our time is oil and oil pollution.
- Transport - when traveling by car, hazardous substances such as nitrogen, lead, hydrocarbon are released into the air. With an increase in the number of vehicles, the level of environmental pollution, including soil, increases, since all elements enter the soil. The erosion process is accelerating, which affects the fertility of the earth (it takes a hundred years to restore this feature). In addition, road construction leads to a decrease in total soil area.
- Agriculture - in the process of growing products, farmers use pesticides, mineral fertilizers, pesticides, and other products containing mercury and heavy metals. The process of soil erosion increases due to the plowing of land, which leads to their desertification. Salinization of the soil is facilitated by regular irrigation.
- Radioactive waste burial - radioactive waste dumped from the reactors of nuclear power plants is stored in the soil.
The process of soil pollution is accelerating every year. The condition of the lands affects everything around, starting from food security, ending with the full-fledged life of all living things on the planet.
Soil protection measures
In order to save the “health” of our planet, it is necessary to implement certain measures:
- minimize tillage;
- alternate planted crops;
- fix the soil using the root system of vegetation, form a closed vegetation cover;
- plant protective shelterbelts;
- carry out drainage work in order to reduce the groundwater level.
Soils also need to be washed, observing irrigation norms, plowed across the slopes and not use pesticides and other chemical elements.
Basic remediation methods
To improve the condition of soils, it is necessary to prepare land for the restoration of agricultural land, form recreation areas, parks, camp sites, prepare the soil for planting forests and carry out sanitary and hygienic measures in areas unsuitable for use.