In equatorial forests, red-yellow and red ferrallite soils saturated with aluminum and iron are formed, which gives the earth a reddish color. This type of soil is formed in humid and warm weather and climate conditions. Basically, the average annual temperature here is +25 degrees Celsius. Precipitation is more than 2500 millimeters per year.
Red yellow soil
Red-yellow ferrallite soils are suitable for the growth of equatorial forest trees. Here trees have high productivity. The earth in the process of life is saturated with mineral compounds. Ferrallite soil contains about 5% humus. The morphology of red-yellow soils is as follows:
- forest litter;
- humus layer - lies 12-17 centimeters in length, has brownish-gray, yellowish and reddish-brown hues, contains sludge;
- parent rock, which gives a dark red color to the soil.
Red ferrallite soil is formed with an average rainfall of up to 1800 millimeters per year and if there is a dry season for at least three months. On such soils, trees do not grow so densely, and in the lower tiers the number of shrubs and perennial grasses increases. When the dry season begins, the earth dries up, it is exposed to ultraviolet rays. This gives the soil a bright red tint. The topmost layer is dark brown. This type of earth contains about 4-10% of humus. This soil is characterized by the lateritization process. As for the features, red lands are formed on clay rocks, and this ensures low fertility.
Margelite soil is found in equatorial forests. They contain clays, and they contain a small amount of acid. The fertility of this soil is very low. Even in the equatorial forests, ferrallite gley soils are found. These are very humid and saline lands, and they need to be drained. Not all types of flora can grow on them.
In equatorial forests, ferrallite soils are predominantly formed - red and red-yellow. They are enriched with iron, hydrogen and aluminum. Such land is suitable for thousands of species of flora, especially those that need constant heat and moisture. Due to the fact that it regularly rains in the equatorial forests, some useful substances are washed out of the soil, which slowly changes its structure.