One of the modern environmental problems of the planet is land degradation. Under this concept, all processes that change the state of the soil, impair its function, which leads to the loss of fertility, are collected. There are several types of degradation at the moment:
The highest degree of land degradation is the complete destruction of the soil layer.
Probably, the problem of soil degradation acquired relevance in the twentieth century, when agriculture and animal husbandry reached a high level of development. More and more territories began to be allotted for growing crops and grazing animals. Deforestation, changing river basins, exploiting coastal zones, etc. contribute to this. If all this continues in this spirit, then soon there will be no place left on the land suitable for living. The soil will not be able to give us crops, many types of plants will disappear, which will lead to food shortages and the extinction of a significant part of the world's population, and many species of animals and birds will die.
Causes of land degradation
There are many reasons for the deterioration of land quality:
- extreme weather events (droughts, floods);
- deforestation ;
- overly active agricultural activities;
- soil pollution by industrial and household waste;
- use of agricultural chemistry;
- improper reclamation technology;
- the creation of burials of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons;
- forest fires .
Almost all causes of soil degradation are caused by anthropogenic activities that lead to land depletion and destruction.
The importance of soil degradation for human health
The main consequence of soil degradation is that agricultural land becomes unsuitable for growing crops and grazing pets. As a result, the amount of food is reduced, which will undoubtedly lead to hunger, first in certain regions, and then completely on the planet. Also, elements polluting the soil fall into the water and the atmosphere, and this leads to an increase in the number of diseases, including infectious ones, reaching epidemic proportions. All this, starvation and disease, leads to premature death and a sharp decline in population.
Solving land degradation
In order to solve the problem of land degradation, it is necessary to combine the efforts of as many people as possible. First of all, the prevention of soil degradation is regulated by international law. Each state has rules and regulations that govern the exploitation of land resources.
To preserve the soil, measures are being taken to install protective measures against erosion, desertification and other problems. For example, control of deforestation and the use of soil for cropping are required. In addition, crop rotation technologies are applied with the placement of strips under steam. Plots with perennial herbs that restore the earth are also created. Useful is snow retention, afforestation of sand, the creation of buffer zones - forest belts.
Of course, soil conservation depends on people who work on the land, growing crops and grazing animals. The soil condition depends on what technologies they use. The land is also heavily polluted by industrial waste, so industry workers must reduce the amount of harmful substances that are released into the environment. Everyone can take care of land resources and use them correctly, and then the problem of soil degradation will be minimized.